Wednesday, February 3, 2010

Mumbai

Students:

Your assignment is to watch at least one of the videos below and write a thoughtful, detailed response. Underneath each video are questions and links to start any further research. The questions are there to give you some direction and food for thought. Your essay comment should not simply be short answers to the questions I posted. Your response should be at least 200 words.

Points will be given for the following:
1. Essay is the required length.
2. Essay demonstrates research on the topic.
3. Essay contributes original thought and reflection to the discussion.

**Bonus points will be given to any students who also reply to another student's comment. Replies must be thought provoking or conversation starting. Simply writing, "Good work" will not count.**

Video #1: India in the Past
Partition


Source: Partition Emory University
Source: Partition Wikipedia Entry

What does "partition" mean?
Who ruled India before 1947?
What 3 countries eventually emerged after 1947?
How many wars did India and Pakistan fight after partition?
Do either of these countries have nuclear weapons?

Video #2: India in the Present
Mumbai Attacks



How did the gunmen arrive?
Analyze the terrorists' targets: what did the people who were targeted have in common?
What message were the terrorists trying to express?
Approximately how many people died in the attacks?
What is the historical cause of the problems between Pakistan and India?

Source: BBC Story
Source: Wikipedia-Mumbai Attacks



Video #3: India in the Future
Vision of India 2020


How many people live in India?
How does their economy rank in the world?
How many engineers and scientists does India have?
How does India compare to America?
Do you think India will surpass America as the world's superpower?
Source: Time of India Vision 2020
Source: Khaleej Times: India, China and Next Superpower

151 comments:

  1. The terrorist attacks in Mumbai, India's largest city, were a huge setback of more than ten coordinated shooting and bombing attacks. They left destruction,debri, and lost lives.To be approximate, 175 deaths (166 civilians and 9 attackers) and 308 wounded.
    These gunmen were Muslim terrorists from Pakistan,whos controllers were back in Pakistan. These attackers were members of Lashkar e-Taiba, the Pakistan based militant orginization.(by India,United States,United Kingdom,and others, it's considered a terrorist orginization).This was disclosed by Ajmal Kasab, the only attacker who was captured alive.
    Blood tests on the attackers found that they had taken cocaine and LSD during the attacks to help stay awake for a long 50 hours straight,and to sustain their energy. Confessed by the surviving attacker, they had used Google Earth to familiarise themselves with some of the attack sites. The attack had been planned several months in advance.
    India and Pakistan have had problems since their partition in 1947, and their already strained relationship just got worse after the 2008 attacks in Mumbai, also known as 26/11( the atttacks began November(11) 26th(26)).
    In conclusion, the three day long attack was a hostage crisis that turned the usually bustling city of Mumbai into a destination for disaster;explosions,flames,shooting, debri, destruction, injury and death. 26/11 was a hostage crisis that turned Pakistan and India into even larger enemies.

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  2. WOW, was I surprised by all I learned about the Future India! Seeing that it has the second fastest growing ecomomy is really amazing. Especially since not long ago they had people starving to death. But now they are the fastest changing and growing country around.

    The US should take a lesson and learn from India. The US economy is in turmoil, and India is easily surpassing us. It has grown economically 8% over the last 3 years. With having the largest middle class of people that have the means to spend money it helps them to become the next super power.

    They are out growing China. Wal-Mart spent 1 billion dollars purchasing products from India. That's a huge number! Everything about India is growing! Sad to say, but that is not happening in the US. Thier productivity to produce tractors, food, etc. allows them to not have to depend on other countries. Large US companies are moving jobs to India, especially IT jobs.

    Their stock market is thriving, their savings are thriving (4th largest user of wind energy), their people are thriving (2nd largest number of scientists and enginerrs), their entire economic system is thriving! They have diversity (speak 525 different languages).

    With an estimated population of 1.5 billion, together as a country, they can probably do anything if they put their minds to it!

    Just some of my thoughts...Carly E.

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  3. In India their economy is ranked second in the world. This is because it has a average annual growth rate of more than 8% in the last 3 years. India also has the second largest pool of scientists and engineers. Also India will have the largest Working Age Population in the world in the next 6 years.

    India has a lot of the top companies that are still growing today, such as their commercial vehicle manufacturer which is the 5th largest. Also they have the worlds largest Democracy, second largest economy, and the third largest standing army force.

    Right now there is and estimate of 1,177,381,000 people living in India today. Out of all of those people, more than half of them are Hindu. So i think that India will have and estamite of 2 billion people living there. I think that because they have many companies that will draw people to come there and work for them.

    When India was in need Walmart sources 1 billion dollars worth of goods. Half of that was apparel or clothing.

    India is the 12th largest nation in terms of Market Capitalization. Also there are 23 small and 2 big stock exchanges with over 7000 listed companies which is the largest in the world today.


    Each year in India there are many tonnes of gold mined each year and they are 5th in the worlds gold output.

    The US compares to India because we both have fast growing companies. Also because we both have a large population.

    It is said that India will become the largest English speaking nation in the world overtaking the US. Also it is said that India will overtake China's economy.

    As you can see that India has many good thing about them. So I think that India will have a great economy and companies in the future.

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  4. I think India is a very productive sub-continent. It has a huge population and in the future I think India's population will continue to grow rapidly and have a huge amount of people populating India. I think India is going to be great in the future. Right now India's population is about 1,147,995,904. That is a gigantic number! They are a very advanced and are ranked world's largest democracy, second largest economy and third largest standing army forces.

    India used to be small and now it is a huge, fast growing place. The U.S. has some products from India, especially Wal-Mart, who sourced $1 billion worth of goods (half including apparel). I think that in India's future they will surpass America as the world superpower. Business Week that out of 100 emerging market firms 21 out that 100 were Indian firms. India consumes a lot of gold. Each year 2500 tones of gold is mined, 3500 is consumed. 1000 of that is consumed by India. That is a lot of gold! They are the 5th largest commercial vehicle manufacturer. They are also the 2nd largest tractor manufacturer and 4th largest pharmaceutical industry.

    India's economy is the fastest growing economy. It grew 8%in the past three years. They have a great amount of scientist and engineers. They rank second in the world. I think India is a very strong country and people work very hard to achieve their goals. I think some people underestimate the true power of India and don't realize how strong they really can be.

    India is such an interesting country and to learn more about it was great. there is a lot to know i didn't think India was that advanced but now I realize how important it is to your everyday lives. Those are just a few of my thoughts about India's future!

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  5. Video One: India in the Past
    India had been under British rule for nearly a century up until 1947. Britain had finally decided to relinquish their rule, and India became a free nation. There were different groups in this subcontinent; the Hindus made up the majority of middle India, the Muslims resided in Bengal and northwest India. The English divided the majority of Bengal and the northwest into East Pakistan (Bengal) and West Pakistan (the northwest). In the new divisions, 15 million ran across the newly created boundaries, and 500,000 died in riots. The worst riot areas were Sindh, Bengal, Punjab, and Jammu Kashmir. Jammu Kashmir was unique in the way that it had a Hindu maharajah ruling over a population that was mostly Muslim. This maharajah wanted to join India, but the idea was disputed by Pakistan. Later that year (1947), soldiers from Pakistan invaded Jammu Kashmir. Troops from India tried to fight back, but weren’t equipped for the climate. Pakistan responded, sending more soldiers over. On January 1, 1949, Indians approached the U.N. for a cease fire, which established a ‘line of control’, but nothing was final. Later, in 1952, China attacked the Aksai Chin region, which they gained and still own today. Another war broke out in East Pakistan, and millions of refuges flooded West Bengal. As a result, Bangladesh was created. The conflict still continues today, with 777 people being killed in Jammu Kashmir in 2007, although some Indians say that there were more deaths.

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  6. On November 26th, 2008, right after 9:00 P.M., gunmen from Pakistan landed at the gateway of India. The gunman entered India in inflatable boats. Once they arrived, they traveled for an hour to get to their targets. Their targets were the Nariman House, the Leopold Cafe, the Taj Mahal Hotel, the Oberoh Trident Hotel, the Cama Hospital, and the Chatrapati Shivaji Railway Trainstation. These were the terrorists targets due to the amount of money and success that they had.

    It was thought that the gunman were after any citizens of Britain or America. Many people tried to escape, but many were not successful. Unfortunately, approximately 179 people lost their lives to the gunfire and bomb explosions from the terrorists. This included 22 foreigners, including 6 Americans.

    It was said that the terrorists were taking cocaine and LSD during the attack to stay awake and to have more energy. Officials found evidence of these drugs at the attack location.

    The Pakistani terrorists held approximately 308 hostages, who were terrified by the chaos which was taking place in their city.

    It is believed that the terrorists from Pakistan intruded India due to its large population and the amount of money they have. This multiple day attack was a huge setback on the successful city of Mumbai India. Many people lost their jobs, their homes, and even their family members.

    Once the attack was over, 9 attackers died and some wounded. The remaining attackers, who were part of the group, "Deccan Mujahideen" confessed that they were the ones who attacked Mumbai.

    As you can see, the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attack was a horror and and nightmare for those in the city of Mumbai. This attack caused many fatal injuries and deaths which changed lives for ever.

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  7. In 1947 Great Britain decided to end nearly 1 century of rule in the large province of India. The 2 major religions in India, Muslims and Hindus, were often in conflict, and problems were formed that the British had to solve. Because of this, a British committee decided to partition (divide) the province into 2 countries- Hindu majority India and Muslim majority Pakistan. In the chaos that followed, nearly 15 million people fled across the borders to the new countries, and 500,000 died in rioting against the decision. The border regions of Sindh, Punjab, Bengal, and Jammu and Kashmir saw the worst of it, with nearly 5.8 million people relocating from these provinces alone. In forming these countries, Britain released themselves from the ties of India, but they left certain war and conflict to remain unchecked.

    The first conflict between Pakistan and India started in the province of Jammu and Kashmir. An argument started over which country controlled the province because an Indian maharajah or "powerful king" ruled over a mostly Muslim population. India claimed that the maharaja had joined India, while Pakistan disputed this. In October 1947 a group of the Pashtun people from Pakistan's northwest province invaded the western border of Kashmir with backing from the Pakistan government. When the maharajah left Kashmir in the autumn of 1948, Indian troops were airlifted in but were ill equipped for the cold climate. Pakistan responded with it's on military drive south, but India pressed the United Nations to declare a cease fire which went into effect on January 1, 1949. This established a control line through the center of Kashmir but didn't create a border. In 1965 after China had had a successful campaign in capturing the Aksai Chin province 3 years earlier, Pakistan launched it's own campaign in trying to take more land in Jammu and Kashmir. The fighting was inconclusive, however and soon after the 2 countries signed a cease fire backed by the U.N. In 1971 a war broke out for East Pakistan. 10 million refugees fled East Pakistan to Bengal,and with India's help the province seceded and the country of Bangladesh was born. Finally in 1999 after both countries had produced nuclear weapons, a nuclear war was barely avoided when Pakistan tried unsuccessfully to take the province of Kargil in India held Kashmir. Even though this was the last major incident in the India-Pakistan conflict, violence has not left the 2 countries altogether. In fact, from 2001 to 2007 nearly 16,000 people have died in Jammu and Kashmir alone. Also, in 2008 Pakistani terrorists infiltrated the city of Mumbai and took hostages before they were subdued. This latest crisis has again raised questions on the stability of the 2 countries.

    In conclusion, I believe that the past of India was one of the most violent in the world. 4 wars with Pakistan and numerous conflicts and skirmishes have created a northern border shrouded in fear but has allowed India to remain free. As a result, India is now the 2nd most populated country in the world, has grown in the maths and sciences, and now has created a strong economy. If India continues to deny Pakistan' s invasions and eventually makes peace with Pakistan, it may be able to become one of the most powerful country's in the world

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  8. I was amazing when i saw india in the future. I never realized how much potental they have econamy wize.
    i did some research and found out much more..........for instanse the Indian populaton today is about 1.1 BILLION. (to be exact it is 1,147,995,904 people!!!!!!! Also on answers.com it sad that one day india is gong to be the highest economic country in the whole entire world with in the time spand of 10 years tops!!!!
    i think that india and the united states are alike in many ways. we both have many advancements that we have made. For example when i was in the city to see famly and as we were on the bridge i had saw the new trade center to replace the twin towers. later on when i was in brooklyn i saw many new and improved buldings being put up. India is like that also there are many buildings and industries being built up. the progress in both countries is astonishing!!! i think it is great how to countries can advance so much in the matter of years!
    ths video is a great way to see how other countries evolve and achieve so much. I think that this video will show people that america isnt the only growing country in the world

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  9. India is a large country. I believe that everyone in India works very hard. Right now they are going through difficult times.

    On the eve of November 26th gunman arrived at the gateway of India. They arrived in inflatable boats. It took them a little over an hour to attack. Their targets were the Jewish Outreach Center, the Taj Mahal, the Luxury Hotel, a hospital, and the railway station. There were explosions everywhere. Many buildings were in flames. The gunmen wanted anyone who had British or American passports. They were targeting foreigners. There were many hostages being held.

    There was an erie quiet over the city during the night. The Prime Minister advised that he will take full measures to free hostages. Security moved in to help with the crisis. There was chaos everywhere. There were a number of people who managed to escape from the Jewish Center. Seven hostages were freed. The troops also freed another 90 hostages. Finally the siege of the Taj Mahal came to an end. Their efforts paid off.

    Unfortunately there were a number of hostages that were found dead, but the siege was over. A number a gunmen were shot dead also. India is going through hard times just like a lot of other countries.

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  10. India is a large country located in Asia. It is a very huge country, It is a sub continent and very powerful. Sources believe that Indias population will keep greatly increaseing and the population right know is about 1 billon and will grow 8 % in a 3 years .

    The stocks are great and many cities in India shops and stores make money and keeps them in good shape and if the population keeps growing it will help the economy. It is also the second most populated country after China in the world. The goverment is very great, fair and truthful.

    India is also very holy with many religions and is very peaceful. India is a neutral country and does not fight unless they need to defend them selves. India is a very, very tough country and they have faced economic disasters such as war and they have faced the lack of freedom.

    Most of the adults work in India and their lives are similar to ours. They go to school, church and work. As I said, India will keep growing and getting bigger. The economy will grow and will make india more great and powerful and give them a stronger reputation.

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  11. It was amazing when I saw India in the future. I never realized how much potential they have economy wise.
    I did some research and found out much more..........for instance the Indian population today is about 1.1 BILLION. (to be exact it is 1,147,995,904 people!!!!!!! Also on answers.com it sad that one day India is gong to be the highest economic country in the whole entire world with in the time span of 10 years tops!!!!
    I think that India and the United States are alike in many ways. We both have many advancements that we have made. For example when i was in the city to see family and as we were on the bridge I had saw the new trade center to replace the twin towers. Later on when I was in Brooklyn I saw many new and improved buildings being put up. India is like that also there are many buildings and industries being built up. The progress in both countries is astonishing!!! I think it is great how to countries can advance so much in the matter of years!
    This video is a great way to see how other countries evolve and achieve so much. I think that this video will show people that America isn’t the only growing country in the world

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  12. I thought this was an awesome video. Its awesome what it will be like in the future! The population now is 1,147,995,904 people, that is crazy big! It is also cool how the population increases by 8% a year.Wow.

    The economy of India is placed twelfth largest in the world. Economists predict that in 2020, india will become one of the leading countries in the world!

    India compares to America some of the technology. For Example, have you ever realized that America and India are almost at the same level in technology. India helps with Dell. America helps with Appple. When my Dad needs help on our (Dell) computer, he calls up the company and he talks to a very intelegent Indian man and helps him get the problem on the computer fixed.Amazing.

    I think that india has a 50% chance of passing America in super power. Earlier I compared India to America and they are about the same. But, the one big thing that I think they might pass America is because of there incredible population of 1,147,995,904 people and that it increases by 8% every 3 years is just incredible. So in my mind India might pass America in superpower.

    India might also have the largest engeneer and scientist population in the next 6 years. So by that time (2016) there would be an increase in thier population by 16% and they would also have the highest engeneer and scientist population in the world.

    Out of all of this information about India I think the population is the coolest part. I think I will know reply on micheal r's essay.@micheal r In your essay when you said that India's population is about 1 billion did you know to be exact it is 1,147,995,904.It is huge!

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  13. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

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  14. India is 5,000 years old, and the is the oldest civilization known to man kind. There are also 325 languages spoke in India. Something also intresting about India is that it has the second fastest growing economy after China with an average growth rate more than 8% in the last 3 years.

    In the next 6 years India will add the largest working age population in the world! India has the second largest amount of scientists and engineers in the world which as you can see is very impressive. India has 23 small and 2 big stock exchanges which is the most in the world. Each year 2500 tonnes of gold are mined from India which is an amazing feat.

    India has the largest diamond cutting and pollishing center in the world. In fact about every 9/10 diamonds are passed through India. By 2010 Indian savings are projected to hit $400 billion. Currently just 2% of these savings are estimated to be invested in equity. India is also the 4th largest producer in wind energy.

    I was really amazed when I saw the video India In The Future. The accompleshments India has had are unbelievable and I think maybe one day India will surpass America as the worlds superpower

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  15. Jessie- Great essay. First of all, I can't believe how many people live in India. I find it amazing that by 2020, India will be one of the worlds leading economist countries. Good Job

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  16. Muslim terrorists from Pakistan were responsible for the Mumbai attacks in November of 2008. On the evening of November 26th gunman from Pakistan attacked. It took just over an hour for the gun men to engulf the city and attack. They arrived in inflatable boats attacking targets of Nariman Jewish House, the Taj Mahal Hotel as well as the Oberoi Trident, the Karma Hospital, the railway station and popular tourists spots like the Leopold Cafe. The gun men were looking for anyone with a British or American passport. There were many hostages during the attacks. As many as 6 explosions were said to have happened at one of the hotels.
    Despite the fact that the gun men were hiding everywhere firefighters were able to save 200 hostages at the Taj Mahal. Unfortunately for others it was the end of the line. Either shot or caught in one of the many fires caused by the terrorists. By this time the Indian army had begun to secure the attack spots.

    By the morning of the 29th the rest of the gun men were taken care of and 250 hostages from the Oberoi, 300 from the Taj, and 60 from the Jewish Outreach Center. After the attacks blood tests were taken of the gunmen and the police believe that the attackers had been taking cocaine and LSD during their attacks to stay awake for 50 hours strait. Police also say that they found syringes on the scenes of attack and it was also indicated that the terrorists were taking steroids. The surviving gunmen said that the attackers had used Google Earth to familiarize them selves with the locations of the buildings attacked.

    This just proves how dangerous the world can be and that not everyone in it is peaceful.

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  17. Hey Carly very nice essay. I watched the video that you wrote about and I believe that only 325 different languages are spoken in India. Great essay though!

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  18. Hey Jessie, I read your essay and realized that you and Frankie have two different numbers for India's population. I checked a bunch of websites and got a lot lot of different numbers but all of them were close to each other.I think Frankie has a better guess of the population even though we dont know the real population.

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  19. In 1947 India was set free after almost a century of being ruled by the British. India is a large subcontinent and during that time had nearly three-hundred ninety million people. A British commissioner dived India into two groups, majority Muslim Pakistan and majority Hindu India. This partition caused a lot of trouble for the people in India. A partition is the dividing of a place or group into two or more segments. When people tried to cross the new boundaries as many as five-hundred thousand died in the rioting as fifteen million tried to get across the new borders. Four of the border regions experienced the largest amount of these fatalities and riots that were going on at the time. These regions were Sindh, Bengal, Punjub, and Jammu and Kashmir.
    Jammu and Kashmir, out of all of India’s states was the only one with a Hindu ruling prince in a majority Muslim area. India had said that the prince or maharaja had joined India but Pakastan had thought otherwise. This created problems as, with the help of Pakistan’s Government, the Northwest frontier province invaded Jammu and Kashmir. Later in October of 1947 the maharaja left Srinagar which is located in Jammu and Kashmir. Then, Indian troops were air-lifted into the area to fight Pakistan but they were not yet endured to the cold climate and the increase in altitude. Pakistan tried to respond by sending its own expedition but India decided to turn to the United Nations and open up a cease fire which went into effect on New Years of 1947. Because of all the defense surrounding the border between India and Pakistan the Himalayan troops were week. When China attacked in 1962 they easily defeated the forceless Himalayan troops and gained control of the Aksai Chin region of Jammu and Kashmir. After that in 1965 some of the Pakistan troops went across India’s line of control disguised as Kashmir locals. The fight was extremely short and inconclusive which means no one had won. Both countries had decided to sign a backed United Nation’s cease fire.
    In 1971 another short-term war broke out but this time in East Pakistan. East Pakistan sent 10 million troops toward west Bengal located near the west coast of India. With the help of India Bangladesh was born. In 1999 both India and Pakistan had successfully tested nuclear powered weapons. A full-blown war almost broke out when Pakistan tried to take over the Kargil in Kashmir which was owned by India. There have been no major wars since this mishap.
    The reported killings have seemed to decrease in the past decade or so but there is still some violence between these two countries. Personally I think if these two countries ever decided to come together as one united nation, they can do some great things for this world. They would be very powerful and would have an incredibly strong army. I enjoyed learning about India in the past and I hope you learned a lot just like I did.

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  20. Hey Toby. I did India in the past as well and I rewatched the video a few times. I believe the maharaja left Kashmir in 1947. Besides that, your essay was incredible and very well written.

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  21. Hey Mike great essay! But the only thing is I as well checked lots of websites like Maggie and Frankie's guess of the population is a little more accurate. But great essay!

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  22. Hi Maggy, Frankie, and Jesse I have checked a few sites and most say the population is about 1.17 billion as of 2009. I am still not 100% sure though.

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  23. Present Day India


    The terrorist attack on the City of Mumbai,India took place over a three-day period. It started on November 26th at 9:00 P.M. and ended on November 29th. The gunmen arrived by inflatable boats. It only took one hour after the boats landed to reach the city and the targets that were to be attacked. The gunmens' targets were Leopald's Cafe, The 100 year old Taj Mahal Hotel, and Jewish Centers. The terrorists were looking for anyone who had a British or Amerian passport or were citizens of these nations. By targeting these locations, the gunmen felt certain that British or Amreicans would be at these sites, and their attack would be successful. Over the 3-day period the gunmen took hostages and some were executed. The commonality between these targets were that they were not citizens of India, but foreign nationals. During these attacks, 175 lives were lost. The historical cause of the problem between Pakistan and India was because the British defined the border (Lahore and Amritsar) between Pakistan and India and this created problems.

    After watching the video and this horrible attack, I realized how lucky we are to be in the United States. It was so frightening to see and hear the violence that took place during this attack, and the loss of so many lives. To think that these gunmen had no regard for human lives leaves me speechless.

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  24. Emmet- Great essay! There was a lot of interesting facts that I had no idea about! There is only one thing I would like to add. By doing some research, I learned that the terrorists that attacked Mumbai were on drugs (such as cocaine and LSD), to stay awake longer and to have more energy! I could not believe this! First they attack a city, under the influence of drugs! Anyway, I thought it was just and interesting and shocking fact that i have learned.

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  25. Hey Mike! Thanks for the tip. I didn't realize I had done that! Your essay was great and you provided some great information. By the way, in the war in which Bangladesh was created in 1971 I think it was 10 million refugees that fled across the border, not soldiers. Wonderful essay. Very well written.

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  26. I watched all three videos on India, “the present”, “past” and the “future” and my favorite one was “The Future”. I thought the video of the present was frightening; the attack seemed to be just one awful viewpoint of present day India. The future was amazing, and showed so much of their pride and progress. I had no idea that they had the world’s largest democracy or the third largest armed forces, I remember hearing somewhere that India’s economy was becoming very good, so I am not surprised that it is the second largest in the world. A lot of people live in India about 1.1 billion live there now. I expect there will be at least 1.5 billion by 2020.

    My mom has a book on India and I have found out that they speak 325 different languages and practice more than 7 religions. India has 25 states and 7 union territories; each has its own language, dress, religious rituals, arts and crafts, and food. As I saw in the video it ranks third largest stock exchange of trade. 3 quarters of the world’s fortune 500 company’s outsource there IT needs to India. It’s the second fastest growing economy after China with growth has grown more than 8% in the last three years. It also has the 2nd largest pool of scientists and engineers in the world.

    I think Compared to America and the rest of the world India will have the largest working population with totals of 64%. With all of India’s growth it may very well have the ability to surpass America as the world’s superpower.

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  27. In August 1947, the birth of the New Islamic Republic of Pakistan came to be. Soon after, India won its freedom from colonial rule and British presence ended in India. The British left India in 2 parts; Pakistan and India. Pakistan was left as an Islamic state and India as a secular one. As the countries partitioned, sparks of conflict started.

    On November 26th, 2008, just after 9:00 am, gunman arrived at the gateway of India in inflatable boats. Although it took them a little over an hour to carry out their attacks on Mumbai, they had specific targets. These targets included Nariman House(Jewish Center), Leopald Cafe, the 100 year old Taj Mahal Hotel, the Oberoi Triden Hotel, the Cama Hospital, and the CST Railway Station. Chaos was spreading all around Mumbai.

    Explosions, gunfires, and fires were all around. Although many escaped, 179 people died and 304 people were injured. Many thought the terrorists were specificly after foreigners and approximatley 26 foreigners were killed. In addition, hostages were being held and the firefighters attempted to free them. Commanders continued to try and end the siege.

    Finally after parts of India lay in ruins, the certain places that were attacked were secured and hostage bodies were all that was left in the buildings that were still standing. The attack was brought to an end on November 29th after 9 out of 10 attackers were dead and the other put in jail.

    I found present India facinating and very educational. It was a life threatening attack that changed India and I have never read about it before so it was great. (approx. 260 words)

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  28. NICOLETTE I enjoyed reading your great and detailed report. I did not know that the attackers were taken LSD and cocoaine, that was very interesting to read.

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  29. The attacks from the terrorists from Pakistan was terrible. About 170 people were killed and 308 people were wounded. That attack damaged the Mumbai civilization badly and I hope everyone that was wounded recovers quickly.

    India's population is about 1.1 billion and is growing at 1.55% a year. It has the twelfth largest economy and the third largest behind Japan and China. India is the seventh largest country in the world. India got its name from the Indus Valley. Three major states in India are Goa, Kerala, and Rajasthan. India has three major seasons: Monsoon, Summer, and Winter. Monsoon is from June to October; Summer is from April to June; and Winter is from October to March.


    India has an interesting culture today. The culture of India has been shaped by its long history. India, being a multi-cultural society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. The three national holidays celebrated in India are the Independence Day, the Republic Day, and the Gandhi Jayanti. They are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India.


    India also has recreation and sports. In the area of recreation and sports India has been involved in numerous games. The martial arts originated as ancient games in India. A couple of games brought to India from the British Raj have grown popular in India: field hockey, soccer, and especially cricket. Even though field hockey is India's national sport, cricket is by far the most popular sport in India. Indoor and outdoor games like chess, snakes and ladders, playing cards,carrom, and badminton are popular. Chess was invented in India.


    India has strong traditions of poetry ever since the Vedas and the Rigveda, as well as prose compositions. Poetry is often closely related to musical traditions, and much of poetry can be attributed to religious movements. Writers were often skilled poets. These days, poetry has served as an important non-violent tool of nationalism during the Indian freedom movement. A famous modern example of this tradition can be found in figures Rabindranath Tagore and Kuvempu. Two examples of Tagore's Gitanjali serve as the national anthems of India and Bangladesh.


    The music in India includes varieties of folk,pop, and classical music. The oldest preserved example of Indian music are the melodies of the Sameveda that are still sung in certain Vedic sacrafices.


    India also has sculptures that I read about. The first sculptures in India came from the Indus Valley civilization, where stone sculptures have been discovered. Later, when Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism developed, India produced some intricate temple carvings. Some shrines, such as the one at Ellora were not constructed by using blocks carved out of rock.


    Indian architecture encompasses a lot of expressions over time, and are still absorbing new ideas. Religion and kingship do not seem to have done any role in the planning and design of these towns. During the period of Maurya and Gupta empires and their successors, many Buddhist architectural complexes, such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora were built. Later on, South India produced several Hindu temples.


    Mohandas Ghandi also came from India. He was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar, British India. He died on January 30, 1948 by assassination. He was known for being a prominent figure of the Indian Independence Movement. He had four children named Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas, and Devdas.


    From what I read about India, it is one of the most fascinating places I have ever read about.

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  30. Hey Frankie


    When I wrote my essay I checked a couple of websites and like Moose said India's population is about 1.1 billion.

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  31. Hey Moose,


    I checked a couple of websites about India and about 3 of 5 of them said Britian only ruled India for 92 years.

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  32. Hi! Elizabeth and Mary did great essays, and I enjoyed reading them.

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  33. Hi again! I forgot to say this before, but I think that this would be fun to do more often, don't you think? I wish Mr. Haines good luck in India!

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  34. The Mumbai attacks started on November 26, 2008 and ended on November 27, 2008. The terrorists, Pakistani extremist arrived by inflatable boats at the gate of the city. The attacks included ten coordinated shootings and bombings in India's largest city. Some targets included St. Xavier's College, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower Hotel, Leopold Cafe, the Metro Cinema, and Cama Hospital. Some locations were targeted because of their British and American tourists. The terrorist thought if British and Americans were involved in the attacks their cause would get more attention. The terrorist were expressing their anger at the relationship Britain and America has with India as well as Pakistan's constant fight with India over Kashmir. Approximately two hundred people were killed in the Mumbai attacks. The Islamic extremist group called Deccan Mujahideen claimed responsibility for the attacks.

    India and Pakistan have been bitter rivals since both nations achieved independence from Great Britain in 1947. The dispute is over a valley called Kashmir. Both India and Pakistan believes they have a claim to Kashmir. Kashmir is located in northwestern India.

    It is sad that all this violence is a result of claiming rights to the Kashmir Valley. Why would Pakistan go so far as to attack British and American people? Our relationships with both India and Pakistan are in our best interest. However, being in the middle of these two bitter enemies in a conflict that we have nothing to do with is a continuous problem for us.

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  35. Moose , even though that one thing I said about your essay it was still a really good essay and I enjoyed reading it.

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  36. Frankie, you had a lot of interesting facts in your essay and I enjoyed reading it. It was really interesting.

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  37. Hey Emmet, You had a really good essay. I looked into some of your facts and they were all accurate . Good Job!

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  38. Wow! It never occurred to me that the terrorist would be on drugs to stay awake.

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  39. For the people that didn't write their essays I got a lot of good info at wikepedia. It really helped.

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  40. Great essay Matthew! I enjoyed reading about the Indian culture.

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  41. India is a large and largely populated country with over 1,177,466,000 Billion people! India is a country in south Asia. It is the seventh-largest country. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east, India has a coastline of 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi). It is bordered by Pakistan to the west.
    In 1947 Britain prepared to end nearly a century of rule over the Indian sub- continent and its neary 390 million people. Hindus were concentrated in Central and Southern India.
    Later, in 1962, China attached India and the Aksai Chin region of kashmir easily defeating India's poorliy equiped Himalayan troops and stays in control today. Another brief war broke out between East Pakistan in 1971.(This one conclusive) East Pakistan seceded ten million refuges streamed into West Bengal and with India's help, Bangladesh was born.
    In my idea I think much war and suffering occurred in India's past and I think it will continue to happen over the years. I also think that many more weapons will be made in later years to fight back against attacking countries. This is what I have learned about India's past and what I think will happen in the future.

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  42. hey Mike D. I found that number on one of the sites i checked but none of the others i checked were related to that number but either ones of us could be right or wrong.

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  43. WOW! The video on India in 2020 left me totally speechless. I never knew that it was the oldest civilization known to man and that India also has 325 languges spoken! India is the 2nd fastest growing economy after China, with an average annual growth rate more than 8% in the last 3 years. I also thought it was a great observation by saying "in the next 6 years, India will add the largestworking age population in the world by approx. 64% of population.
    India's consumption expenditure formed 78% of GDP. Walmart even sourced $1 billion from half of it's apparel from India. With 23 small and 2 big stock exchanges with over 7,000 listed companies, makes India the largest in the world. Each year, 2,500 tonnes of Gold is mined, out of which 1,000 tonnes is consumed in India alone. I also tought it was amazing how I learned that stones sold anywhere in the world pass through India!
    In 1968, India imported 9M tonnes of food grains to support it's people. Today, it has food grain surplus stock of 60M tonnes. By 2010, Indian savings hit $400 billion. Currently, 2% of these savings are estimated to be invested in equity. India is the 4th largest producer of wind energy and the 2nd largest tractor manufacturer. India is the world's largest democracy, 2nd largest economy, and 3rd largest standing army force. I believe that India plays a very big part in the U.S. and also is a very interesting country. Even though it was a 6 minute 9 second video, I feel i learned so much with so little information.

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  44. Thanks for letting me join in on this project.

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  45. TERRORIST ATTACKS ON MUMBAI INDIA

    On Wednesday, November 26, just after 9pm, Pakistani terrorists arrived at the Gateway of India in inflatable boats. After just a little more than an hour, they were across the city, and were proceeding with their attacks. They had more than one target: a Jewish outreach center called Nariman House; popular tourist attraction, Leopold Cafe; two hotels: the 105 year old Taj Mahal, and the Oberoi Trident Hotel, located across the peninsula; the Cama Hospital; and the CST Railway Station. At each of the six sites, hostages were taken, over 100, total. Eventually, six captives were freed from the Nariman House, but with them came frightening news: the terrorists were after foreigners, mainly British and Americans.

    Thursday, and police and armed forces surround and secure the siege sites, tightening their security measures, as a chill quiet descends the unnaturally still city of Mumbai. Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, announces, "We will take the strongest possible measures to ensure that there is no repetition of such ill respects." By Friday, nearly 90 more hostages are released. On Saturday, Indian police forces made a last effort, the siege was stopped, and the gunmen dealt with. However, nearly 195 people had died, and the terrorists gave at least two clear messages: they would attack India, or anyplace else, and India was still their enemy.

    The two countries had been fighting ever since the end of British rule had split the land up, and also since their dispute over the Kashmir territory to the north of India. There will obviously still be tension in the air there for a while longer.

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  46. India in the Future

    After viewing the video about what India will be like in the future, I was very surprised. The video was very educational and made me more interested in India and its culture.

    First, India is a large country located in southern Asia. It is the seventh largest country and has a population of over one billion people. This is more than three times the population of the United States.
    Second, I learned that India is a democratic country. Like the United States, India has a president. One difference is that India's president serves for five years.
    Third, I learned that India has the twelfth largest economy in the world. India has an annual growth rate of 8% per year. Since 1991, it has transformed into one of the fastest growing economies. Although India is a wealthy country, its stills suffers from setbacks such as poverty and disease.
    Next, I found out that India has the second largest pool of scientists and engineers available there. However, it is twenty second when ranked by the quality of scientific research.
    Although India is a very affluent country, I feel that the United States is still a more prosperous country. The U.S. has survived many setbacks, such as the Great Depression, and is still thriving. I do feel that over a period of time, India could become more successful. It has proven to be a strong, powerful country that works together. India's population is already greater than that of the U.S., and I predict that soon the economy will be too.

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  47. Thanks for the compliment Chris. It took me about 3 hrs to type it. Your essay is good too. It has some things I didn't put in my essay. I didn't know the terrorists took drugs to stay awake. Also I didn't know India and Pakistan were rivals in territory since 1947. Good Job.

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  48. From the video called "India in the past"I learned that from about 1850 until 1947 India was a territory of Britain. The two major religions are Muslim and Hindu. The Hindu religion is mostly found in the southern and middle section of India. The Muslims are more common in the northern section of China. A British commitioner divided the subcontinent into majority muslim Pakistan and majority hindu India. A partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one community’s homeland. After the partition many hindus living on the pakistan side of the partition were forced to leave and the same went for the Pakistan people. About 500,000 people died moving across to their side of the partition. The three countries that emerged from the British ruled India were India, West Pakistan, and East Pakistan.Jammu Kashmir was the only state that had a Hindu maharaja ruling over a majority Muslim state. In October of 1947 pakistany soldiers invaded the capitol of Jammu Kashmir. In the same month the Muslim soldiers left. This allowed Hindu soldiers to be airlifted to the city, however the soldiers were inequiped for the weather and altitude. Pakistan launched its own campaign then later got the united nations to call for a cease fire. In 1971 a war broke out in East Pakistan. This sent 10 million displaced Hindus to go over the partition and settled in West Bengal. With Indias help Bengaladesh. In 1999 both India and Pakistan tested and succeded in creating nuclear warheads. War was nearly declared when the pakistany people tried to take over Hindu occupated Kashmir.Terrorism in India has slowed down considerably since 2001. Then a terrorist attack was commited in Mumbai in 2008.
    All of this information was very intresting and I learned so much about the past of India.

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  49. Toby your essay is amazing. How are you so good at writing essays. Please tell me some tips on how to write better. :)

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  50. Terrorist Attacks on Mumbai India
    On Wednesday, November 26, just after 9pm, Pakistani terrorists arrived at the Gateway of India in inflatable boats. After just a little more than an hour, they were across the city, and were proceeding with their attacks. They had more than one target: a Jewish outreach center, called Nariman House; popular tourist attraction, Leopold Café; two hotels: the 105 year old Taj Mahal and the Oberoi Trident Hotel located across the peninsula; the Cama Hospital; and the CST Railway Station. At each of the six sites, hostages were taken, over 100, total. Eventually, 6 captives were freed from the Nariman House, but with them came frightening news: the terrorists were after foreigners, mainly British and Americans.
    Thursday, police and armed forces surround and secure the siege sites, tightening their security measures, as a chill quiet descends upon the unnaturally still city of Mumbai. Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, announces, “We will take the strongest possible measures to ensure that there is no repetition of such ill respects.” By Friday, nearly 90 more hostages are released. On Saturday, Indian police forces made a last effort, the siege was stopped, and the gunmen dealt with. However, nearly 195 people had died, and the terrorists gave at least two clear messages: they would attack India or anyplace else to get what they wanted, and India was still their enemy.
    The two countries had been fighting ever since the end of British rule had split the land up, and also since their dispute over the Kashmir territory to the north of India. There will obviously still be tension in the air there for a while longer.

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  51. Out of the three videos I decided to watch the third one “India In The Future”. The video had many facts about India and I told me some of India’s high points. I was caught by surprise when I learned India had a much bigger population than I thought. I also learned that India has modern technology and new ideas like America.
    I learned many interesting facts watching this video. I learned that India has the second fastest growing economy after China with an average annual growth rate more than 8% in the last three years. Many big industries get much of there goods from India such as Walmart. I learned that it sourced 1$ billion worth of goods from India, which is half of its apparels. I also learned that India has a growing population of 1,147,995,904 people. It has the second largest pool of engineers and scientists in the world. I also learned that India has the third largest standing army force.
    I learned many facts about India from this video. If there’s one thing I can pull away from the video it is that I understand that India has a big economy with many people that’s trying to get stronger everyday. They have many new ideas and the right technology to make those ideas come true. I think India should use America as an example for creating a stronger government and society.

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  52. Hey Toby its Thomas Skoff and i just wanted to comment on your essay. I think you did a very good job and listed many details. I picked up many important facts from your essay.

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  53. Hey toby just commenting on your essay again. I piked up some interesting facts like the two major religions of India is muslim and Hindus. I also learned from 2001 nearly 1600 people have died in Jammu and Kasmir alone. One thing i was very surprised about was India was in 4 past wars with Pakistan. I think you did a great job and you used many details. GOOD JOB!!!!!!

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  54. India in the Past





    In 1947, Britain prepared to end nearly a century of rule over India’s sub-continent. On August 14, 1947, saw the birth of the new Islamic Republic of Pakistan. At midnight the next day India won its freedom from colonial rule. The British left India divided in two. The two countries were founded on the basis of religion, with Pakistan as an Islamic state and India as a secular one.
    The Partition of India was the partition of British India that led to the creation of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India. A partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one community’s homeland. That change is done primarily via diplomatic means, and use of military force is negligible. The question of the choice to be made in this connection by Jammu and Kashmir led to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 and other wars and conflicts between both India and Pakistan. The princely state of Kashmir and Jammu came under pressure from both India and Pakistan to agree to become part of one of the independent countries. The partition of India and its freedom from colonial rule set a precedent for nations such as Israel.
    In 1999, Both India and Pakistan successfully tested nuclear weapons, full scale war was barely avoided when Pakistan tried to cease the Kargil region of Indian controlled Kashmir.
    I learned so much about India’s past! This video was very interesting.

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  55. I learned alot from this video about India's past. India is a very big country it has a little more than 1 billion people. I learned that there were two major religions in India Hindu's and Muslim's. These two religions had some problems and since Great Britain owned parts of India they had to solve the problems. They solved the problems by splitting India. Muslim's were part of Pakistan and Hindu's were part of India. Because some people did not like this about 450,000 died. In 1947 Britain gave up there rule so India became a subcontinent. Britain
    left India fighting with Pakistan and it was in the province of Kashmir and Jammu. They were fighting over who ruled the province. Later,in 1952 China attacked Aksai Chin region. Another war broke out in Pakistan and thousands of refuges flooded West Bengal.
    There has been many wars in India and I am sure that there are more to come. I also think that more people will die and that more weapons will be made. I also Learned that at one time the average of one pakistan solider every 4 days and one Indian solider every other day died at the Siachen Glacier. Also the attacks in Mumbai in November 2008 were reportedly planned by senior members Lash Caritorba. I have learned so many things about India and I can't wait to do something like this again.

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  56. hey chris nice essay but and i agree with you about the targets included St. Xavier's College, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower Hotel, Leopold Cafe, the Metro Cinema, and Cama Hospital. I think you should have included the population like around 1 billion people or close to that because we are not exactly sure how many people but otherwise it was a great essay!!!!!!!

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  57. Joe- why do you think that there is a 50% chance that India will surpass america as the the superpower? Great essay though!

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  58. Joanna- I looked at your answer and you said that there were 25 states and 7 union territories, well I looked on wiki and saw that there were actually 28 states.

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  59. Oops! I meant to say Johnna not Joanna.

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  60. India is the 12th largest nation in terms of market capitalization. Its economy has grown 8% over the last 3 years. It is the third lasrgest in terms of number of trades. Every year, 2500 tonnes of gold is mined in India.

    India has the second largest number of scientists and engineers.In the next 6 years, India will have the largest working age population in the world,about 64%. About 9 out of 10 diamond stones sold in the world pass through India. It is also the 4th largest producer of wind energy.India has the world's largest democracy. In 1968, India imported 9M tonnes of food grains to support its people.The population of India is approximately 1.1 billion.

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  61. India's Population is over 1.1 billion. The economy has grown over 8% in the last 3 years. India has the second largest pool of scientists and engineers.India will have the largest Working Age Population in the world in the next 6 years which will be approximatley 64% of the population. It is the 4th largest producer of wind energy. India is a powerful country that should not be underestimated in the future.

    India is the 12th largest nation in terms of market capitalization. Each year, 2500 tonnes of Gold is mined. About 9 out of 10 diamond stones sold anywhere in the world, pass through India first. In 1968, India imported 9M tonnes of food grains to support its people.

    Veronica C.

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  62. India's Population is over 1.1 billion. The economy has grown over 8% in the last 3 years. India has the second largest pool of scientists and engineers.India will have the largest Working Age Population in the world in the next 6 years which will be approximatley 64% of the population. It is the 4th largest producer of wind energy. India is a powerful country that should not be underestimated in the future.

    India is the 12th largest nation in terms of market capitalization. Each year, 2500 tonnes of Gold is mined. About 9 out of 10 diamond stones sold anywhere in the world, pass through India first. In 1968, India imported 9M tonnes of food grains to support its people.

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  63. Mr.Haines, I sent it to you two days ago and you didnt approve it yet. If I have to rewrite it please tell me.
    - William.T

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  64. India's Future
    India has changed a lot in the past few years. The population has gone up, the economy has advanced and so much more. In fact, India has the second fastest growing economy with an average growth rate of more than 8%.
    India has the second largest pool of scientists in the world. It also has the worlds largest democracy. It's the worlds 4th largest producer of wind energy, the 2nd largest tractor manufacturer, and it has the worlds 3rd largest standing army force. India itself is the 7th largest country in the world. People predict that in 2050, India will have a bigger population than China. Right now, the population is ranked 2nd in the world. This is because the medical and engineering advances.
    India is like the United States, because they both have major trading industries. Once, Walmart sourced about 1 billion dollars worth of goods from India. America also has lots of tourist attractions. It has Orlando, Hershey Park, and lots more. India has the game of cricket and the Taj Mahal. (a famous memorial)
    India is growing faster and faster every day. It's advances in the medical field, engineering, the economy, it's population, and trade will continue to grow. Also, their religions, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhs will continue to grow too. In conclusion, India should turn out to be a long lasting country that will be one of the best in the world.

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  65. There are three interesting videos to watch. Out of all of them I thought the future of India was the most interesting. I have many interesting facts to share and answers to these few questions.
    India is a very interesting country. India is a 5,000 year old civilization, and is the oldest known to mankind.
    First, India is an extremely large and rapidly growing country. As of today it is said that there is an estimate of about 1,177,381,000 people living in India, and still growing. They have an 82% Hindu population, with more than 7 different religions practiced. Along with 325 languages spoken.
    They have not only a growing population, but a growing economy as well. Their economy is the 2nd ranking in the world, and 2nd growing economy in the world. They are the largest middle class with some real spending power. Also in the next 6 years they will add the largest working age population in the world! That is about 64% of their population. They also have the 2nd largest nation in terms of market capitalization (current level of us $770 billion). Their national stock exchange is the 3rd largest in the world in terms of numbers of trade as well. Also, out of 100 emerging market firms, 21 are Indian!
    India even has the 2nd largest pool of scientists and engineers in the world! India has accomplished many things. Like these few examples. India is the 4th largest producer of wind energy, 4th largest pharmaceutical industry, and the 5th largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in the world!
    In some ways India is very much like America. Both countries have a variety of languages, and religions. Also we both have very strong armies. Our economy may not be as strong as theirs now because of our recession, but we are slowly rebuilding our economy. We too have billions of people living in America, in fact, we have a larger population than India!
    I do not know if India will surpass America as the world’s super power, but it is highly possible. We may be strong, but India is not far behind. Their country is growing rapidly, and they are gaining advantages in technology. They successfully tested indigenously developed nuclear missile brahmos . Along with advances in technology and weapons they are also the world’s largest democracy, and 3rd standing army force!
    In conclusion, India is a truly powerful force, and a strong country. They are advancing in technology, and have a strong economy and army. They have made so many achievements, and we have also gained from their knowledge. India seems to have a bright future ahead of them!

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  66. In 1947, India had a population of nearly 390,000,000 people. At that time, India was ruled by Britain, who was prepared to end over a century of rule over the subcontinent.

    Hindus were located in the central regions of India, and Muslims were located in Bengal and the northwest. Then a British commision divided the territories into mostly Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India. Following the partition, 15,000,000 people in their opposite partitioned territories fled across the borders: 1.9 million from the West Pakistan area, 7.6 million from central India, and 3.9 million from the East Pakistan area. Unfortunately, 500,000 died from rioting between the borders. Four regions in particular faced the worst of the chaos: Sindh,Punjab, and Jammu and Kashmir located in West Pakistan, and Bengal located in East Pakistan. Out of India's 565 states, only one, Jammu and Kashmir, had a Hindu maharaja, in a mostly Muslim population. The word maharaja means "great king" or "high king" in Sanskrit. A maharaja ruled over an area as a king. Indis supposedly said that Jammu and Kashmir's maharaja had decided to join India, but Pakistan objected. In October, 1947, troops from Pakistan's NorthWest Frontier Province invaded Kashmir, with the support of the Pakistan government.

    Later, the maharaja left Srinagar, a city in the West Pakistan area, and Indian troops flew in, but were not properly prepared for the harsh climate and high elevation. Pakistan's response was to send their own campaign to Srinagar, causing India to go to the United Nations to broker a ceasefire. This ceasefire was implemented on January 1, 1949, creating a line of control, but not instating a final border.

    Then, to add to the conflict of Pakistan and its neighboring countries, in 1962 China attacked India in the Aksai Chin region of Kashmir. The Chinese troops easily defeated India's Himalayan troops, gaining control of Aksai Chin. China presently remains in control of Aksai Chin. Three months later, inspired by China's success, Pakistan ordered troops across the line disguised as Kashmiri locals. The fighting ended quickly, and was unsuccessful. On September 22, 1965, both sides agreed to a United Nations backed ceasefire.

    Nine years later, in 1971, a war began in East Pakistan. East Pakistan stopped fighting, and 10,000,000 refugees headed for West Bengal. With India's help, Bangladesh was created.

    In 1999, both India and Pakistan ahd successfully tested nuclear weapons. Full-scale war had almost broken out when Pakistan tried to take control of the region of Kargill, in Indian controlled Kashmir. The war had acclimated to such an extent, that, at one time, the death rate at the Siachen glacier was one Pakistani soldier every four days, and one Indian soldier every other day.

    In November of 2008, the terrorist attack that had occured in Mumbai were supposedly carried out by senior members of a terrorist group named "Lashkar-e-taiba", which was created by Pakistan to fight Indian domination of Kashmir. But India thinks the attack had to do with other terrorist attacks occuring throughout India.

    The conflict trend declines, and in 2007, 777 people died in violence in Jammu and Kashmir. This would make the twenty-year death total above 47,000, but according to some citizens of Jammu and Kashmir, that number has doubled.

    Britain dividing India in Hindu and Muslim territories caused great conflict between the borders, causing wars to break out. In Northwest India the wars ended with no final result, proving even more that the wars were unnecessary to begin with. The partition also caused religious and cultural chaos. This just goes to show that one person's actions can change another person's live in ways they can't even imagine. For the good,....................or the bad.

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  67. India is located on the continent of Asia, towards the south. It borders the Arabian Sea and also the Bay of Bengal. The country of India is slightly more than 1/3 of the United States. India is home to about 1.15 billion people. Of these people, about 82% are Hindu. India is over 5000 years old and one of the oldest civilizations known to mankind. In India over 325 different languages are spoken.

    India’s economy is a domestically driven one, and is second best in the world, with an average annual growth rate of 8%. India also has the largest middle class with real spending power. It is estimated that in 2016, India will have the largest working class population, with about 64%.

    If you compare India and America, you could easily point out many differences. For instance, many Indians are Hindu, and may dress differently than most Americans. But other than the obvious differences, India and America are very similar. India and America are both home to many important scientists and engineers.

    I believe it is possible that India may surpass America as the world’s superpower. One reason supporting my theory is that India has the second largest pool of scientists and engineers in the world! Also, India manufactures many goods, especially clothing. In fact, Walmart has gotten over $1 million dollars worth of apparel from India!

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  68. Very good essay Chris Y. I read it thouroughlt and thought about what you asked:"Why would Pakistan go so far as to attack British and American people?" You are absolutely right. Why would anyone do that? That just shows the extents people will go to to get what they want. Some people are just like that, and unfortunately they cant be changed.

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  69. India is a land of ancient civilization, with cities and villages, cultivated fields, and great works of art dating back 4,000 years. India is the oldest civilization known to mankind.

    British had once ruled India for about a century until 1947. Britain had finally decided to their rule, and India became a free nation. Britain left India because it had become an economic burden and Britain didn’t have the ability to maintain an empire anymore due to increasing demands of self-government. India soon was divided in 1947. The meaning of partition is the act or process of dividing something into parts. Partition can also be used to describe the partition of India. In 1947, the British divided the Indian Empire into two nations. These two nations include Pakistan, which was used as a homeland for Muslims living in the Indian Empire and the second was the Union of India, which was meant to be a homeland for Hindu's living in the Empire.

    India and Pakistan have a long and complicated history with each other. One of the most long-standing conflicts is the conflict between India and Pakistan over Kashmir. This conflict started in 1947, on the day after India and Pakistan both became independent. As a result, India would control almost two-thirds of Kashmir and Pakistan controls one-third. Pakistan did not like this so Pakistan sent tribal lashkars to talk to Kashmir about their decision. The Indian government saw Pakistan's action as a sign of invasion and sent their troops to help defend the state of Kashmir. This was the first war. In 1971 another war broke out. 10 million refugees left East Pakistan and went to Bengal. With India's help the province seceded and formed the country of Bangladesh. In 1999 after both countries had produced nuclear weapons, a nuclear war broke out when Pakistan tried unsuccessfully to take the province of Kargil in India held Kashmir. (318 words)

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  70. India in the Past

    Before 1947, India was controlled by the British Empire, also known as the Raj. In 1947, India became an independent country. The people of India were mostly Hindu and Muslim. The British had divided the country based on what most of the inhabitants believed. They made partitions, or divisions, that became West Pakistan and East Pakistan.

    After India was divided, many people moved from India to West or East Pakistan and vice versa so that they could live near more people who shared their beliefs. Many people died while travelling.

    Although India had many states, Jammu and Kashmir was the only one with a Hindu maharaja, or a Sanskrit prince or king, ruling over a population consisting of mostly Muslims. India claimed that maharaja joined India. Pakistan disputed over this and invaded Kashmir with Pakistan’s government support. Ill prepared Indian troops responded and established a line of control.

    China attacked India in 1962 and defeated the troops in the Himalayas, still holding control over the area to this day.

    In 1965, Pakistan sent troops in Jammu and Kashmir dressed as locals. Fighting stopped, but neither side profited.

    In 1971, a war broke out in East Pakistan and it became Bangladesh.

    In the year of 1999, both Pakistan and India discovered how to make nuclear weapons and war was just barely avoided.

    There is much less conflict between these two countries today, resulting in fewer deaths.

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  71. I agree with Jameson and Chris Y. I mean, using drugs to help you stay alert to terrorize a city! Now thats just cruel. But that just shows you like i said in another comment: the things people will do to get what they want. Some people are like that. And like i said in my essay: a simple action in one person's life can change another person's in ways they can't even imagine. Some people can have a enormous impact on things, and not all of them are good.

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  72. The terrorist acts in Mumbai, India on November 26th-29th were horrific.

    The gunmen arrived in India on November 26th. Within an hour of their arrival they reached their targets. Some of these targets included Leopold's Cafe and the 100-year-old Taj Mahal Hotel. The main targets were anyone with British or American roots. Basically, the wanted tourists and foreigners.

    I think the terrorists were trying to relay the message that their destruction from earlier years was not yet complete. In this terrorist act, nearly 175 lives were lost (166 residents of Mumbai and 9 terrorists). Nearly 308 people were wounded. It is believed the attackers came from Lashkar-e-Taiba, a militant organization based in Pakistan. This "militant" organization is considered to be a group of terrorists. The United States, India, and the United Kingdom deem this "militant" group as terrorists.

    According to research, before reaching Mumbai on the rubber boats, the attackers traveled across the Arabian Sea, and hijacked an Indian fishing boat named "Kuber". The terrorists then killed the boats crew, and forced the captain to sail to Mumbai. After killing the captain, the terrorists abandoned the boat and floated on inflatable boats to the shores of Mumbai. The terrorist acts in Mumbai were horrible and I hope something like that never happens again anywhere in the world.

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  73. In 1947 Britain decided to end almost a century of rule. So in 1947 Britain ruled most of India. Also the three countries that eventually emerged after 1947 are East Pakistan, West Pakistan, and India. In 1999 both West Pakistan and India tested their nuclear weapons and they all worked.After the partition there were about 6 wars all around India and including India.Also partition means that India and Pakistan split into two different countries.The video I watched about India in the past was really interesting I learned a lot, I learned how many people died, which countries tested their weapons, and how many countries went to war. This video about India in the past is very educational. I loved learning about India in the past. It was fun watching the video. Learning about how many wars went on and how many countries and subcontinents were involved. I would like to learn a lot more about India. I thought the most educational part was actually seeing what India is all about. I loved looking at what the video shows us. The most educational part is looking at all the different maps and charts. This is what I have learned about India's past.

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  74. (Video 3 INDIA IN THE FUTURE) India is changing before our eyes. I believe that Indians are very smart and bright people. It has the third largest standing army force in the world and has done so much to change the world we know. India's 5,000 yr. old civilization is the oldest civilization known to man kind and has taught us many things. It's country's civilization,society and people are so filled with diversity and political tolerance. Indians have such a respect for their nation and that's the way it should be. Times have changed, technology has changed, and it is getting hard for people to see what really matters- peace, friendship,love,hope,and respect. All those things have been forgotten. I'm not saying that cell phones and other new modern-day technology don't matter, just that we cant forget the things that get us through hard times and the things that will always be there with us. Indians believe in their culture and keep their nation alive with each other. They hold their flag proud knowing that they are proud to be and Indian. But can we say that about ourselves? Can we say we are proud to be an American? I know I am, but are you?

    Indians made great achievements in many specific fields such as medical,engeneering,electrical appliances ,transportation and much more. They made progress on satelites,wind mills (they also are the 4th largest producer of wind energy), and cell phones.


    One of the things I found very interesting were that they were the 2nd largest manufacturer of tracters! I'm not saying its wierd or anything like that but I just thought it was cool!!

    Even though there are very poor parts in India, by 2010 Indian savings reached $400 billion!!! They have the 2nd largest economy in the world.



    India also has the largest stock exchange in the world and exchanges with over 7,000 listed companies in the world.

    NEVER UNDERESTIMATE THE POWER OF INDIANS.

    INDIA IS CHANGING FASTER THAN YOU THINK....

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  75. India has the world’s largest democratic system and second highest economy. Its economy also has the second fastest growth rate behind China which had more than eight percent in the last three years.

    India is an important trade partner for the EU and a growing global economic power. With twenty three small and two big stock exchanges including over seven thousand listed company stocks, it is the largest market in the world. Their national stock exchange is the third largest in the world in terms of traders after the NYSE and NASDAQ.

    Also, India has a vast assortment of material goods moving in and out of the country. Gold and diamonds are important to India’s industrial output. Each year two thousand five hundred tons of gold is mined, which is one fifth of the world’s gold output. The largest diamond cutting and polishing center in the world is found in India. About nine out of ten diamonds sold anywhere in the world pass through India. In addition, agriculture is the predominant occupation in India, accounting for about 52% of employment. Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, cotton and tea.

    Due to the reasons above, economists predict that by 2020 India will be among the leading economies of the world.

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  76. With a population of 1,147,995,904 India has quite a bit going for them. India is a 5000 year old civilization; the oldest civilization at that. 325 languages spoken there, India is envisioned as a very substantial nation. A dazzling vision of the future for this country, it seems as though India has the power to exceed America.

    India’s economy has grown more than 8% in the last three years. This makes India the second fastest growing economy. In just a few years, India will have the largest working age population and as of right now they have the largest middle class to boot. Indian savings are supposed to reach $400 billion. To add to all of this, India is in the top 5 rankings of certain industries. India is the 2nd largest tractor manufacturer; they are 4th in their pharmaceutical industry and wind energy production, the 5th largest commercial vehicle manufacturer, and the 12th largest nation in market capitalization. India has the largest democracy, second largest economy, and third largest army force. Another interesting fact, 21 out of 100 globalizing market firms are India’s! India also has both many engineers and scientists. They have the second largest amount in the world!

    Here comes the result to the standing question. How does India compare to American you ask? Well we all know that our economy is not doing well at all so we can safely rule out the economy comparison. As for the contrast of working age population, one out of every 5 working age American men do not have a job. As far as economy, India towers over the United States. Even with all the modern advances, America surpasses India involving military. India definitely seems to have much more positive qualities rather than America, but could this be true?

    In my opinion, I feel India does have the potential to go beyond America as the world’s superpower. Things can definitely change unexpectedly, but India has many positive features that will most likely strengthen. If these features do strengthen, India will pull the rug out from under America’s superpower.

    I would like to conclude my essay with a brief statement featured in the Vision of India in 2020 video. “India is changing faster than you think. Now it is time to see them as a developed country. They must stand up to the world with self confidence and let others know the true power of Indians. Let them show their strength. Only strength respects strength.” We shall see how this pans out.

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  77. In the video about India's past, I learned alot about how acheivements have progressed from then until now.
    Primarily, India and West Pakistan fought against each other and started a war in 1947. Because of a partition, many people rioted against Britain and emerged into the land of India and West Pakistan.
    Britain ruled India at the time and partitioned, or divided, East Pakistan Muslims and West Pakistan Hindus.
    After the time of partition, two wars were fought near the land of Jammu and Kashmir; India vs. Pakistan and Pakistan vs. China.
    During the war, China invaded the East side of Kashmir and won. Reacting to China's success, the people of Pakistan dressed as Kashmir locals, tried to invade the northern part of Kashmir. This was brief and inconclusive until the UN declared a cease fire.
    Pakistan had nuclear weapon testing sites but Bangladesh and China did not. Although that did not affect the outcome of the war. Today, several countries are known to have nuclear weapons, including China.
    In conclusion, I learned about how the history of India and it's surrounding countries were formed into one subcontinent.

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  78. I changed my website address and blog. You can find the response there. Thanks again.

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  79. I think everyone did a wonderful job! Hope we all had fun. :-)

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  80. Hey Erica R,
    I totally agree with you on how Indians are bright and smart. I did not India's civilization is the oldest civilization in man kind! Great Job!

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  81. The population of India is 1,147,995,904. In terms of market and capitalization, India is the 12th largest nation. India's economy is the second fastest growing economy after China with an average annual growth of 8 percent in the last three years. India has the second largest amount of engineers and scientists, In about 2016 India will add the Largest working age population, which will be about 64 of the population. About 9 out of 10 diamonds sold pass through India. India is the fourth largest producer of wind energy. India also has the world’s largest democracy. In the year 1968, India imported nine million tones of food grains to support its people.

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  82. Muslim terrorist from Pakistan attacked India’s largest city, Mumbai, in 2008. The attack left about 173 dead and at least 308 wounded. According to the only attacker who was captured, the men were members of the Lashkar-e-Taiba, a terrorist organization, whose goals are to introduce an Islamic state in South Asia and to “liberate” Muslims.
    On the evening of November 26th, Wednesday, just after 9 o’clock, gunmen coming in from inflatable boats landed at the gateway of India. It took the men just a little more than an hour to travel across the city and make their attacks. These men had targets that consisted of popular tourist spots, hotels, a Jewish outreach center, and a hospital. Complete chaos happened when people got scared with the sounds of explosions, and the sight of flames happening around them. People were being held hostage and security was working hard to get them free and out of harms way. The city, usually full of life, is now in a time of quietness. On Friday the last of the hostages are rescued, the buildings get secured, and the sieges are brought to and end. The terror is over.
    The attacks lasted from Wednesday to Saturday, leaving people frightened and places in destruction. India’s Prime Minster assured the people that drastic measures will be made to insure that no future terrorist attacks like this, will happen ever again.

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  83. In the year 2020, India is predicted to take over China as the first fastest growing Economy. In the next 6 years, it will add the largest Working Age population in the World and the 2nd largest pool of scientists. India currently has the 3rd largest trade in the world and is the 12th largest nation in terms of Market Capitalization in which the current level of the United States of America is 770 billion.
    India is predicted to take over China economy-wise, because, China will start suffering and getting old from a dropping personnel, and will be forced to revalue their money. China's economy is predicted to drop as did Japan in the 1990s after looking inevitable in the 1980s. India having become the world's second best economy, China's export-based form will drop drastically. Other countries will not be able to take in its exports such as they were able to in earlier years. This will also cause The lesser Indian states will soon start becoming as excellent as the richer states are. Meanwhile, India will gain very much with an increasing workforce that is even more better than it has ever been before. As well, India is now becoming the leading English language population in the world, overtaking the United States. So, the global publishing trade will change in a immense way to India.

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  84. Heyyy gabby! Great job on your essay! You did a really good job. I think that you really explained alot!

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  85. The Mumbai attacks on India were planned to kill innocent people in six different areas. These areas ranged from an outreach house, to a popular tourist attraction, two hotels, a hospital and a railway station. The attackers caused chaos and confusion in many areas in India. During the confusion many rescue and emergency personnel were rushing to help those in need, and to protect other citizens in danger.

    The infiltration plan was interesting. The attackers used inflatable boats as their transportation to the target. They arrived at the gateway of India and continued with their plans. Within little more than one hour the gunman had arrived at their targets. They started the attack on Wednesday. With many of the buildings on fire, security personnel made a perimeter while firefighters rescued people trapped inside.

    The terrorist were targeting areas as the terrorists on 9/11. As many terrorists, the attacks on India were to kill as many innocent people as possible. The message of the attacks was as I understand them because of the Indian soldiers trying to take over Kashmir. The terrorists were senior fighters of Kashmir. Scores of people died in the attacks. The causes of the attacks were of British rule coming to an end and separating India into three areas. These areas and borders were disputed. This was the most probable motive.

    The attacks on India were made clearer in the videos I researched. All attacks of terrorists are in my opinion unreasonable and outrageous. Why not try to negotiate? But as I have learned, life and logic are different in other areas of the world.

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  86. In 1947 Britain decided to end nearly 1 century of rule in the large subcontinent known as India. There were 2 major religions in India. One was the religion Hinduism, Hindus were concentrated in the middle and south part of India. The Muslims were also a major religion in India and they concentrated more on the far northwest and far northeast. A British Commissioner dived India that had a majority populated areas of Muslims into Pakistan, and majority populated areas of Hindu’s remained India. They did this because the two religions have been in conflict so Britain decided to just separate the 2 religions. After the partition (which means to separate or divide) there was some Hindu’s in Pakistan and there were some Muslims in India. This caused much chaos. Over 15 million people fled to the new borders and over 500,000 thousand people died do to rioting. The four bordering regions that suffered the most casualties were Sindh, Punjab, Bengal and Jammu & Kashmir.
    In the state Jammu & Kashmir there was a Hindu majority that ruled over a Muslims populated area. This created much conflict. In October of 1947 Pakistan invaded Kashmir to try to gain control of the land. That same month India airlifted in and pushed by Pakistan forces. Pakistan responded with its own attack that went south through Kashmir, but India pressed the United Nations to declare a cease fire which went into effect on January 1949. This made Pakistan have control of part of Kashmir. India still had control of all Jammu and some of Kashmir. In 1963 China attacked the outside region of Kashmir known as Aksai Chin. China easily gained control of Aksai Chin and still has that area today. Pakistan sent troops to attack Jammu and Kashmir do to China’s great success. They managed to get across the border as dressing up as Indian Kashmir locals. The battle was brief and inconclusive. On September 22, 1965 both nations decided to hold a cease-fire. In 1971 a war broke out for East Pakistan, 10 million refugees fled from East Pakistan and streamed to west Bengal. With India's help the province seceded and the country of Bangladesh was born. In 1999 Pakistan and India had finished testing there nuclear weapons. A full out war was just barely avoided when Pakistan tried to cease the kargil region of Indian controlled Kashmir. After the partition in 1947 three countries emerged, Pakistan, Kashmir and Bangladesh. Also conflict had been steadily decreasing in the Jammu and Kashmir.

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  87. In the video of "India in the Future" I learned that India has 325 languages that are spoken. They are the second fastest growing economy, after China, with an average annual growth rate of more than 8% in the last 3 years. In the next 6 years India will add the largest working age population (approx. 64% of population). Walmart sourced $1 billion worth of goods from India. India is the 12th largest nation in terms of market capitalization (current level of U.S. $770 billion). India is also the 4th largest producer of wind energy.
    I think that in the future Indian might surpass America as the worlds next superpower. I think this because India is made up of many intelligent leaders and has a very strong government and economy. I think it likely that the United States will remain the world's superpower because our government handles crisis in a mature matter. We are also a strong country and like India we also have intelligent leaders.
    India is a small country compared to America. India has less unemployment than America, but the Unites States plays a bigger role in trading opposed to India. India is also a developing country and is growing. The population is said to keep increasing rapidly. India's population is expected to rise from 45 to 49 percent.

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  88. India is a 500 year old civilization. This makes India the oldest civilization to mankind. People speak over 325 languages in India. India is the second fastest growing economy, China being first. India also has the second largest group of scientists and enginers in the entire world. The second largest manufacturer of tractors also takes the name of India. India does not just rank second but first in some things, also. One of the coolest facts to me was that India has the largest Diamond Cutting and Polishing Center of the WORLD! Most of the diamonds we have at home are most likely from India, because, the in the video it stated that 9 out of 10 Diamonds pass through India. That is pretty astonishing. I always thought that the biggest Democracy was America because when people think of America they think about freedom. That was another thing I was wrong about. India is the argest Democracy and has the second largest economy. It has been projected that in 2010 $400 billion will have been saved in India. All these facts are amazing and India has got alot to say.

    From the video I learned that India has a lot to say for their name. Personally, I never thought India was interesting or had anything exciting going on. India is out to make aname for themselves so we better be ready because there economy, stocks, etc. are rapidly increasing. This video of the future deffinately showed me wrong.

    Remember.... Never Underestimate the power of the Indians.

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  89. India is an amazing country. It is a 5000 year old civilization. It is the largest civilization known to mankind. There are 325 different languages spoken in India. The largest practiced religion is Hindu. It makes up 82% of people in India. It is high ranked in the world for many different supplies due for every day need.

    These facts are all true and tell us that India is no different from America. We have many top production lines like they do. The Indian population is about 1.1 billion! India’s economy is ranked at second in the world. India's economy is the world's second fastest growing economy after China. That is a big achievement to accomplish. It has the fourth largest producer of wind energy. It also has the fourth largest Pharmaceutical Industry in the world. India is the second largest Tractor Manufacturer, and the fifth largest Vehicle Manufacturer.

    India has the world's largest Democracy. It also it has the third largest Standing Army Force in the world. Walmart has raised about 1 billion dollars to donate to India.

    In the third video it tells us that people do not fully understand the true power of the Indians. India is a country with a lot of pride and devotion. The people from India can achieve whatever goals they set for themselves. They are an amazing country. REMEMBER NEVER UNDERESTIMATE THE POWER OF INDIA!

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  90. Justin L. (8th Grade)February 25, 2010 at 7:53 PM

    The 2008 Mumbai Attacks,which included bombings,shootings, and hostage crisis destroyed parts of India, and left them in devastation. The Muslim terrorists were from Pakistan, and were members of the Lashkar e-Taiba, a major terrorist organization. The terror all started on November 26, 2008, just after 9am, when 10 young armed men hijacked a fishing boat off the coast of India, they ordered the captain to sail to the coast so then they could use a dingy (inflatable boat) to get to the shore. After the terrorists got to shore they went into action, using violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims.

    The 10 coordinated shooting and bombing acts took place a many popular places across India, such as the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (a busy railway station), the Oberoi Trident(a hotel), the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Leopold Cafe, Cama Hospital (a women and children's hospital), the Orthodox Jewish-owned Nariman House, and the Metro Cinema. "The terrorists were looking for anyone with American of British passports," said a eyewitness. The police did a good job of securing everyplace, except the Taj Mahal Hotel. The police killed all gunman except for Ajmal Kasab, which after being questioned said that the attacks were planned for months, using Google Maps as a referance tool. Ajmal also admitted to using cocaine and LSD to sustain their energy, and to keep them awake for 50 hours!

    The 2008 Mumbai Attacks killed 173(estimate) people including the 9 terrorists killed, and wounded 308.The attacks shocked nations around the world and lasted 3 days long. Hopefully this tradgedy will never happen again. Thankfully they captured the mastermind behind the attacks.

    Justin L. (8th Grade)

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  91. I reviewed the second video on the Mumbai Attacks. This video was in the format of a newscast that you would see on the news. From Wednesday, November 26, 2008 to Saturday, November 29, 2008, several locations in Mumbai were targeted by the Pakistan-based terrorists group known as, Lashkar-e Taiba. It appeared that the common targets of the terrosists were foreigners, such as those who had American or British passports. The terrorists arrived by inflatable boats and after the attacks, there were several boats found that were loaded with additional ammunition.

    In total, 173 people were killed and 308 were severly wounded. The locations that were under seige were a Jewish outreach certer, known as Nariman House, Leopold Cafe (a popular tourist spot), luxury hotels - The Taj MaHal and Oberoi Trident, the Cama Hospital and the Chhatraputi Shivaji Terminus (railway station).

    The most interesting thing that I found out about this attack was that it was carried out by only ten terrorists! Only one of these terrorists was arrested alive and later tried. These men tortured their hostages before they killed them. They also took drugs to stay awake during the seige.

    Another interesting thing about this attack was that it took the police and military three days to overcome the ten terrorists!

    After watching this video, I realized that this event occurred millions of miles away from me and I had no knowledge about it. Even though the United States has had its own terrorist attacks, terrorists attacks can happen anywhere at anytime.

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  92. Video 1 India in the Past

    August 14, 1947, was the birth of the new Islamic Republic of Pakistan. At midnight the next day India won its freedom from colonial rule, ending nearly 350 years of British presence in India. The British left India divided in two. The two countries were founded on the basis of religion, with Pakistan as an Islamic state and India as a secular one. As Britain ended rule over India sub-continent in 1947 with a population of 30 million people, Britain left India to form a partition. A partition is the division of a country into two or more seperate states or countries. The countries that emerged after 1947 was Pakistan, Banladesh, and India.

    The Hindu majority is in Central and South India. The Muslim majority is in Bengal and Northwest India. British commission divided the territoy into the Muslim majority in Pakistan and the Hindu majority in India. In the chaos that followed the partition, 15 million people fled the borders. The 4 border regions found the worst of it: Sindh, Bengal, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir. Among Indias 565 princely states only Jammu and Kishmir had a Hindu maharajah ruling over the Muslim majority population. India claimed that the maharajah joined India, but Pakistan disputed this.

    In October, pushtunes from Pakistans northwest frontier provence invaded Kashmir with support of Pakistan's government. In October 1947 the maharajah left Sprinagan. Indian troops were air lifted into Pakistan, but they were ill prepared for the cold and altitude. Pakistan responded with its own campaign.

    In 1962, China attacked India in the Aksai China region of Kashmir easily defeating India's poorly equipped Himalayn troops. China retains control of Aksai China today. 3 years later encouraged by China's success Pakistan set troops across the line of control dressed as locals from Kashmir.

    Another brief war broke out over East Pakistan in 1971. this one conclusiv. East Pakistan aseated 10 million refugees streamed into Weast Bengal. With India's help, Bangladesh was born.

    In 1999 after India and Pakistan has successfully tested nuclear weapons, full scale war was barley avoided when Pakistan tried to seize the Kargil region of Indian controled Kashmir. At one time an average of 1 Pakistani soldier every 4 days, 1 Indian soldier every other day died at the Siachen Glacier and terrorist attacks in Mumbai in November 2008 were reportedly planned by senior members of Lask Karitoyba, which Pakistan created a fight, Indian domination of Kashmir in which India accusses of terrorists atrocities all over India.

    In 2007, 777 pople were killed in viloence in Jammu and Kashmir bringing the 2 decade total above 47 thousand by Indias' official count. According to some Kashmiris, the total is twice that number.

    In conclusion, I learned that after Britain stopped ruling India, it became its own country and faced many hardships. I also learned that the country India has many small states in it.

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  93. Wow Danielle F. i didnt know India is different from the U.S. Your essay is very good and anyone can learn something interesting from it!

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  94. I did this essay about "India In The Past". I hope it's good.


    From 1856 until 1947, India was controlled by Great Britain. Finally, in August 1947, India gained independence from Britain. At the same time, parts of India that were heavily populated by Muslims were partitioned to form Pakistan. Partition is the action of dividing or being divided into two parts, or to divide into parts. In the partition, 15,000,000 people fled across the borders, and 500,000 died in riot. On January 26, 1950, India became a republic with a new constitution. Pakistan eventually divided into East and West Pakistan.
    India and Pakistan fought 4 wars altogether. The Indo-Pakistan war of 1947, also known as the First Kashmir War, started when the Maharajah, which is Sanskrit for "great king", of Kashmir and Jammu was pressured to accede to either of the newly independent states of Pakistan or India. Tribal forces from Pakistan attacked and took residence in the state, forcing the Maharajah to accede them. The United Nations was then invited to end the quarrel. The war ended in December 1948 with the Line of Control, which is the military control line between Pakistan and India.
    The Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 started when Pakistan infiltrated forces in into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India. Than India attacked Pakistan. The five-week war was eventually stopped by the United Nations, which mandated a ceasefire.
    The Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 started when about 10 million Bengalis in East Pakistan took refuge in India. Eventually, Pakistan surrendered to India after Bangladesh was created.
    The final, and most recent Indo-Pakistan War happened in 1999, when Pakistani troops crossed the Line of Control and occupied Indian territory. India launched a major military campaign to get them out of the country. Due to Indian military advances and increasing diplomatic pressure, Pakistan retreated.
    India and Pakistan both have nuclear weapons. Pakistan became the 7th country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons. India has also developed nuclear weapons.


    India is clearly an advanced country. I never realized it had so many wars with Pakistan, or that it was so advanced in weaponry. I learned a lot about India, and Pakistan as well.

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  95. Will, you had a great report. Why did you write " With India's help Bangaladesh..." You didn't finish the sentence. But other wise, it was a really good essay. Lots of details. I didn't know that Pakistan invaded the capital of Jammu. Good job.

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  96. Justin L. (8th Grade)February 25, 2010 at 8:22 PM

    As much as India is a amazing country with their economy and population, but after reading some posts (this is my opinion) I do not think India will be able to become a super-power unless they fix some major issues. India is a large rural country. It has a huge population which is highly illiterate. Its an agricultural based society and not an industrial society. It still uses the caste system. 900,000,000 Indians live below the poverty level. India has big racial and religious problems, poverty ,crime, and corruption. But, if India really tries to fix these problems, I am SURE they will become a super-power, but that is just my opinion.

    -Justin L. (8th Grade) P.S everyones posts were awsome!

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  97. The Terror Attacks in Mumbai, India
    By Steven DeVito

    On the night of Wednesday, November 26, 2008 just after 9pm unknown terrorists arrive in Mumbai, India. The terrorists came by water in inflatable boats. Within one hour later, they put their attack plan to work. Spreading out through the city they went on a rampage targeting: Popular gathering spots, a Jewish Outreach Center, Railways, Hospitals, restaurants - 16 locations in all. The largest terrorist attack was at the Taj Mahal Hotel. There was shootings, bombs, many hostages and buildings set to flames. According to information that released or escaped hostages gave, they were looking for British or USA passport holders. The Prime Minister of India, Monmahan Singh went on TV to tell his people of the horrible attacks. He denounces the attackers of what they are doing. The attacks went on for a few day with much gory. On the morning of Saturday, November 29 the attacks come to an end. At that time approximately 90 hostages were freed. According to reports 195 civilian people had died, 9 gunman dead and at least 295 people were injured.

    As I researched to find the answer to the attacks – The motive is far from clear to me. The attacks happened at the same time as several indian states, including in disputed Kashmir. Could this be the reason?

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  98. The Terror Attacks in Mumbai, India
    By Steven DeVito

    On the night of Wednesday, November 26, 2008 just after 9pm unknown terrorists arrive in Mumbai, India. The terrorists came by water in inflatable boats. Within one hour later, they put their attack plan to work. Spreading out through the city they went on a rampage targeting: Popular gathering spots, a Jewish Outreach Center, Railways, Hospitals, restaurants - 16 locations in all. The largest terrorist attack was at the Taj Mahal Hotel. There was shootings, bombs, many hostages and buildings set to flames. According to information that released or escaped hostages gave, they were looking for British or USA passport holders. The Prime Minister of India, Monmahan Singh went on TV to tell his people of the horrible attacks. He denounces the attackers of what they are doing. The attacks went on for a few day with much gory. On the morning of Saturday, November 29 the attacks come to an end. At that time approximately 90 hostages were freed. According to reports 195 civilian people had died, 9 gunman dead and at least 295 people were injured.

    As I researched to find the answer to the attacks – The motive is far from clear to me. The attacks happened at the same time as several indian states, including in disputed Kashmir. Could this be the reason?

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  99. I watched the second video about India in the present.

    The terrorists arrived in Mumbai by means of inflatable boats from Pakistan. Their targets were the Narriman Jewish outreach center, the Leopold Café, the Taj Mahal Hotel, the Oberoi Trident Hotel, the Cama Hospital, and the Chatrapati Shivaji Railway Station. They took hostages and gunshots were heard. Their hostages had British or American passports or foreigners. Firefighters desperately tried to rescue the trapped guests at the Taj Mahal Hotel. The streets of the city, which was usually congested with people, was empty.

    First, a few hostages were released from the Jewish center. Still the officers tried to stop the terrorists at the other locations. Then, over ninety hostages were released from the Oberoi Trident Hotel. Later they secured the Narriman, and finally the Taj Mahal Hotel. About 200 people died and 300 people were injured in this devastating event, and it will be a sad day in Mumbai’s history.

    India has had a history of conflict with Pakistan, however. In the 1960s, Pakistan and India went to war with each other. This means that India and Pakistan have been quarreling for a while.

    In conclusion, the attacks on Mumbai were a series of terrible events, killing hundreds of people. India will always be hurt by this and it was a devastating day in its history.

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  100. By 1947 decolonization of the world had begun, and just like the rest of the world Great Britain was forced to give up its holdings in the Indian sub-continent. The Muslims had moved into the sub-continent around 715 and since the Hindus and Muslims had constantly been in conflict. The British decided to separate India into two separate nations. The Muslims had majority in the west and east and Pakistan was carved out of those lands, the center was made into India. This decision led to 15 million people rushing across borders and .5 million dying.

    After the Subcontinent was partitioned (partitioned is a word that means to split) peace was not permanent. Jammu and Kashmir was the only province in India without a Hindu majority. This led to invasion by the North West Frontier Province in 1947 with the support of the Pakistani government. The Indians soon airlifted in new soldiers however the soldiers were unprepared for cold Himalayan weather. India, after another invasion by the Pakistan government, pleaded to the U.N. for an armistice. In 1949 a line of control was created inside of Kashmir. India also soon lost more land to China, in 1962 after the Chinese easily defeated the poorly equipped Indian troops in the Aksai Chin. 3 years later, after noticing the success of the Chinese, the Pakistanis decided reinvade the province by disguising their soldiers as Indian citizens. This invasion proved indecisive in proving a victor and after a very short time a U.N. backed treaty was proposed. In 1971 the conflict shifted over to east side of the subcontinent in East Pakistan. East Pakistan then seceded and 10 million refugees fled into West Bengal. With encouragement from India, Bangladesh was born. Both countries had achieved nuclear power by 1999, and conflict was narrowly avoided after Pakistan threatened to launch a full scale war to take over Indian controlled Kashmir.
    It seems that after 3 wars these nations may finally have reached peace. What started a century as a British colony has now become three independent nations (Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India) two of which have nuclear power (Pakistan, and India). These nations have come very far and are now respectable members of the U.N. I'd say that this conflict, which has been continued since the 8th century, may finally be over.
    -Jp M

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  101. India is a country located in South Asia. It borders the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east. India is a republic consisting of 28 states and seven union territories. It is the seventh largest country by geographical area. India has a population of about 1.17 billion people. The population increases by 8% a year. In the next 6 years, India will add the largest working age population in the world by approximately 64% of the population. Of these people 82% are Hindu. India has 325 spoken languages. India is 5,000 years old and is the oldest civilization known to mankind.

    India has a domestically driven and second largest economy. It is the second fastest growing economy after China with an average annual growth rate more than 8%. India has a great economy because they are great at selling things like clothing. In Wal-Mart they spent $1 billion dollars worth of goods. India also has a great number of scientist and engineers. India ranks second in the world. India is the 12th largest nation in term of market capitalization. By 2010, which is now, Indian savings were planned to hit $400 billion dollars. Currently just 2% of these Savings are estimates to be invested in justice.

    India has 23 small and 2 big stock exchanges with over 7,000 companies, which makes them the largest in the world. Almost three fourths of 500 companies work in INDIA!!!!! Besides being the largest stock exchanges in companies, India is the 2nd largest tractor manufacturer. India is also the 4th largest producer of wind energy, the 4th largest pharmaceutical industry, and the 5th largest commercial vehicle manufacturer.

    India has the world largest democracy!!!! I would of thought China or the U.S. did. India also has largest diamond cutting and polishing center in the world. About 9 out of the 10 diamond stones sold anywhere in the world, pass through India. Also, each year 2,500 tons of gold is mined and 3,500 is consumed. About 1,000 tons is consumed in just INDIA!!!!!WOW! In 1968, India imported 9 million tons of food grains to feed its people. Today, India has Food Grain Surplus Stock of 60 million tons.

    India and the United States can be compared in many ways. For instance, India has many more languages. India also has different customs, religions, and apparels (like Hindu’s clothing). They are alike because both have very strong army forces. India is the third largest standing army force. Also, both countries have many engineers and scientists. I suppose it is possible that the Indians will surprise us as the world’s superpower. They could become the world’s superpower because India is changing rapidly as we know it. Someone once said, “ You should never underestimate the power of Indians.” India could become THE HIDDEN POWER HOUSE!!!!

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  102. Everyone did an awesome Job!!!!! I think everyone would agree that we learned a lot something from this!!!! :)

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  103. The attacks in Mumbai have taken place in a few different locations including the Oberoi Trident and the Taj Mahal Hotel, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, and the Leopold Café. At the Oberoi Trident and the Taj Mahal Hotel, there were a total of 5 explosions and both buildings were surrounded by RAF (Rapid Action Force) soldiers, Marine Commandos, and National Security Guards. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus was attacked by two gunmen, one of which was later captured by the authorities. The attack began at about 8:30 P.M. when the two men walked into the passenger hall and fired using AK-47s. They killed 58 people and injured 104 others and ended their attack about an hour and 15 minutes later. At the Leopold Café, one of the first locations to be attacked, two attackers open fired killing 10 and injuring many more. They left the Café while firing into the street.
    The terrorists behind these attacks were Muslims from Pakistan. These terrorists entered Mumbai in inflatable boats at the Gateway of India and proceeded to the targeted areas. The attacks included many different types of destructive or powerful weaponry. Some of the weapons used were timed bombs in taxis, AK-47s, and explosives. They also took hostages and tortured many of them. Many of the attacks took place in tourist areas such as the Taj Mahal Hotel and the Leopold Café. About 28 of the approximate 166 victims were foreigners from 10 different countries. Others who were killed were some notable figures in the media, business, and security services. There were 10 terrorists involved in the attacks, 9 were killed and 1, Ajmal Kasab, was captured and arrested at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus.
    In conclusion, the Mumbai attacks were not stationed specifically towards anyone in particular. About 11 locations were attacked or adjacent to the attacked area. Some of these locations were a hospital, a café, and a hotel. There were 10 terrorists, 9 were killed and 1 was arrested. They entered India in inflatable boats they stole off of an Indian fishing trawler. They then sailed into the Gateway of India and attacked the targeted locations. Approximately 166 were killed. Some were foreigners, business people, media people, and security services. Thankfully, 610 hostages were saved thanks to the efforts of firefighters and security personnel and Ajmal Kasab’s confessions to the Mumbai police have revealed much about the attacker’s preparation, movement, and travel.

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  104. Jeanine P. said.....February 26, 2010 at 8:25 AM

    Out of the three videos about India, I decided to watch "India in the future". The video I saw was very educational and had a ton of interesting facts about India, and its culture.
    India is a 5,000 year old civilization,and it's population is about 1.17 billion people. Their are 325 languages that are spoken, and it's the oldest civilization known to man.
    India is the second fastest growing economy after China with an average annual growth rate of more than 8% in the last three years. It's the largest Middle class with real spending power. One fact that i thought that was a very good observation was in the next six years India will add the largest working age population in the world. As you can see, India has many economic changes in the future.
    India is also the 12th largest nation in terms of Market Capitalization. There are 23 small and 2 big stock exchanges with over 7000 listed Companies which is the largest in the world.
    Each year in India, 2500 tonnes of Gold is mined, and 3500 is consumed.About 1000 tonne is consumed in India. Back in 1968, India imported 9m tonnes of food grains to support their people. Today, it has a food grain surplus stock of 60m tonnes. By 2010, Indian savings are sure to hit $400 billion. Currently, just 2% of these savings are estimated to be invested in equity.
    By seeing this video India is making many changes, and will have a great economy in the future.

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  105. The video I chose was India in the Present. This video talked about the 2008 Mumbai Attacks. The 2008 Mumbai attacks were more than ten coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai, India's largest city, by Muslim Terrorists from Pakistan. The attacks began on November 26th, 2008 and lasted until November 29th killing at least 179 people including 22 foreigners including 6 Americans. The gunmen also wounded about 308 people. The attacks all started when the gunmen landed at the Gateway of India by inflatable boats. The terrorists targeted the Narmin House, a Jewish outreach center, Leopold Café, a famous tourist attraction, the Taj Mahal Hotel, the Oberoi Trident Hotel, the Cama Hospital, and the Chhatrapati Shivaji Railway Station. The terrorists seemed to be targeting victims with British and American passports, which were foreigners. Ajmal Kasab, the only attacker who was captured alive, disclosed that the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Pakistan-based militant organization, which was considered a terrorist organization by India, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The Indian Government said that the attackers came from Pakistan, and their controllers were in Pakistan. The original root of the problem between Pakistan and India was the Indian Partition. The partition of India included the geographical division of the Bengal province of British India into East Pakistan and West Bengal, and the similar partition of the Punjab province into West and East. The partition deal also included the division of state assets, the British Indian Army, the Indian Civil Service and other administrative services, the Indian railways, and the central treasury. In the aftermath of the Partition, the states of India, which had been left by the Indian Independence Act of 1947 to choose whether to accede to India or Pakistan or to remain outside them, were all incorporated into one of the new dominions. The choice to be made in this connection by Jammu and Kashmir led to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 and other wars and conflicts between India and Pakistan. The above conflicts between India and Pakistan were some of the causes of the Mumbai Attacks. This attack on Mumbai was a great tragedy for India.

    by Lauren K.

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  106. India is a nation that is rapidly growing. India’s current population is 1,147,995,904. It is a 5000 year old civilization and it is known at the oldest civilization known to mankind. There are 325 languages that are spoken in India and 82 percent of India is Hindu.
    China is the fastest growing economy and India is in second place with the fastest growing economy. Its average growth of its economy is 8 percent in the past three years. India also has the second largest economy in the world. About 64 percent of people in India will have jobs and are working in about six years. India has the second largest pool of engineers and scientists in the world. India also has the world’s largest democracy. In addition, India has the world’s third largest standing army force. In addition to all of the above, India has the largest diamond cutting and polishing center in the world. India also has the 4th largest pharmaceutical industry, the twelve largest nation in market capitalization, and the 2nd largest tractor manufacturer in the world. There are many different facts that we didn’t know about India. India is a very interesting nation to learn about.
    As of right now, it is very hard to compare India and America. India’s economy is great right now while our economy is not so great. India has the second largest economy in the world which is better than America's economy, as of right now.
    I believe that one day India will surpass American as the world’s superpower. India just needs to fix a few problems in their nation and then they probably can surpass America as the world's superpower.
    In conclusion, as it said in the video “India is changing before our eyes.” America should be prepared for anything that happens with India because we never know what is going to happen next.

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  107. Video #1, India In the Past,

    India, a subcontinent with nearly 390,000,000 people, was under the rule of Britian until 1947 when Britian planned to end their rule. Britian divided India into two countries, India and Pakistan. India was the central and southern portion and Pakistan was northwest and the area of Bengal. They decided the seperation by religion. Pakistan was Muslim and India was Hindu. When the new borders where set, people rushed to cross the borders which resulted in riots. The area that the worst of the riots where Bengal, Sindh, Punjab, and Jammu and Kashmir.

    Fighting then broke out between Pakistan and India for Jammu and Kashmir, which was lead by the Hindu even though the majority was Muslim. India then went to the United Nations to set a cease fire which went into effect on January 1st, 1949. The cease fire established a control line, but no final border.

    China then attacked India at Aksai Chin in 1962. China easily defeated India and still has control of Aksai Chin today. The Chinese victory motivated Pakistan to attack India three days later. However, the fighting was brief and indecisive. On September 22nd, both sides agreed to a cease fire.

    In 1971, a war broke out in East Pakistan however, this one was conclusive. East Pakistan suceeded and 10 million displaced Hindus streamed into West Bengal. With the help of India, Bangladesh was born.

    After India and Pakistan Successfully tested nuclear weapons in 1999, full scale war was barely avoided when India tried to sieze Kargil.

    There was a total of 3 wars between Pakistan and India after partition, or change of borders, by Britian. From these wars, three countries emerged Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh.

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  108. India was under British rule for almost a century untill 1947 when the British then decided to end the ruling over India and it then became a free-nation. Hindus are mostly in Central and Southern India and the Muslims are mostly in Bengal in the North West. A British commism then started to divide these regions into the majority of Muslims in Pakistan and the majority of Hindus in India. Then 15 millon people stared to come over to these regions and started fled arcoss the new borders and about 500,000 died in riots. Four of these regions got the worst of it. They were Bengal in East Pakistan, and Sindh, Punjab, and Jammus Kiashmi in West Pakistan. Jammus Kashmir was different from all the others because it had a Hindu maharajah that was ruling over a majority of Muslims. India then clamed the maharajah to join India but Pakistan did not want that. Then in 1947 soliders from Pakistan invaded Jammus Kashmir with some support of Pakistan's government. Then in October 1947 they left Srinagar and Indian troops where then airlifted in but, we were not prepared for the climate. In 1962 China attacked India and the Aksai Chin of Kashmir. China easily defeated India's poor troops. China now has control of Aksai Chin today. Three years later in 1965 Pakistan was then encouraged by China's sucess so they then crossed the line of control dressed as Kashmir locals. On September 22 both sides then agreed to U.N for a cease fire. Another war then broke out in East Pakistan in 1971. 10 million refuggees then fled to East Pakistan to Bengal. Then with India's help Bengladesh was born. This conflicts still continue today. In 2007, 777 people were killed in violence in Jammu Kashmir.


    India in the Past was a very interesing video to learn about and I learened a lot from it. I hope you learned a little something about it too!

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  109. India in the future,

    India has proven itself to be one of the largest growing countries in the world. With such a large population India is filled with diversity but still maintains political tolerance. They are the fourth largest Pharmaceutical Industry and have the second largest pool of scientists and engineers in the world. India is also the second largest tractor manufacturer and the fifth largest commercial vehicle manufacturer . As well as the population growth India's domestically driven economy has gotten stronger each year. Their economy has the second fastest growing rate to China at an 8% annual growth rate. They are the worlds largest democracy, second largest economy, and third largest standing armed forces. Their middle class is the largest in the world and has plenty of spending power In the next six years India will add the largest working age population in the world. They also are the 12th largest nation on terms of market capitalization and are the fourth largest producer of wind energy which shows environmental growth as well. By 2010 Indian savings are projected to hit $400 billion. These facts show why the economy is prosperous and will continu to be in the future. With such rapid growth in many economic areas India has proven itself as one of the worlds strongest and largest countries.

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  110. The situation in present time with terrorists in Mumbai is terrible. The terrorists were said to have came into Mumbai on November 26 in inflatable boats. The men obviously had a mission to kill and set out to many places. Some places were the Taj Mahal Hotel, Leopolo Café, and Cama Hospital. The attacks served up chaos to the whole Mumbai nation. Day by day hostage’s bodies were being found and the Mumbai security could not get there in time. One survivor said,”they were asking us if we had a U.S. or Britain passport. It seem like they were trying to single out foreigners.” By this quote, Mumbai government officials could infer that these terrorists were trying to kill as much foreigners in Mumbai as they can.

    As the days went on with these killers, more and more foreigners lost their lives. Each day you could hear the sounds of explosions and see the flames engulfing buildings. One big devastation was at Taj Mahal Hotel. As flames consumed the over 100 year old building, firefighters tried desperately to get trapped hostages out of the rooms. India’s Prime minister who was outraged, gave a speech saying that he is trying to get all hostages out of danger at all costs. Now the streets of Mumbai that are usually crowded were in a dead silence as India’s military closed in on three hostage locations. About 306 hostages have already been found dead so the military wanted to act quickly. That day 7 hostages were rescued from the Jewish center. That gave some people hope. The next day (Friday) everyone available person were trying to end the violence and rescue hostages. Their work paid off. More than 90 people were rescued from the grasp of the terrorists.

    Then when Indian security finally secured Naramin House, they found many hostages who were already dead. That Saturday was finally the end. The siege at the Taj was dealt with and the remaining gunmen were taken care of. But many people still thought over the fact that many, many people lost their lives to these men. In the end, the India’s security did its job and did indeed help Mumbai survive these hard times. If it wasn’t for them, hundreds of more people could have died.

    Terrorism happens in many places in the world and is one of the causes of most civilian casualties. Many ordinary people just so happen to be in the wrong place and end up dead because of people who might think it was their destiny to kill many innocent people. Terrorism is a great problem that many countries face and these places are always trying to stop it. On example of an act of terrorism was in 2001 when terrorists destroyed the Twin Towers in New York. Over 1,000 regular, normal people died due to maniacs how might think God chose them to do this or their nation wants them to do it. We will never know but one thing we do know is: Terrorism affects Mumbai, New York, and many other places and it must be stopped.

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  111. Hey Will. I liked your essay. Without it I would have never known that India used to belong to Brtain. Good job.

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  112. India In The Present

    Out of the three videos, I decided to write my essay on the second, India In The Present. The video focuses on the attacks on Mumbai, just after 9:00 p.m. on November 26, 2008, lasting until November 29, 2008. The gunman arrived at the Gateway in inflatable boats, and within one hour they were able to reach their targets. Sounds of bombing and shooting horrified the people.

    The terrorists' targets were 6 specific places: The Cuma Women and Children's Hospital, The Oberoi Trident Hotel, The Leopold Cafe, The Taj Mahal Hotel, The Rail Terminus, and The Mumbai Chabad House. Their targets? Foreigners. Anyone with a British or American passport were the targets of these horrific attacks. This tragic event killed at least 173 people, and wounded about 308. Hostages were taken at each of the six locations, 100 in all.

    The attacks were believed to have been planned by the country of Pakistan, Mumbai's enemy since it became a country in the early 1940's. There were drugs found at the gate, particularly cocaine. It was later confirmed that the Pakistani terrorists used the drug to stay awake and have plenty of energy to carry out the attacks.

    The terrorist attacks on Mumbai were devestating on the entire counrty and its' patrons. Many families and friends still mourn the death of the attacks on November 26, 2008, and there are still nights of prayer and reverence every year to commemorate the memory of the people that died that tragic, horrific attack.

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  113. Hey Toby! I just wanted to say that your essay was fantastic, and I learned more from that than the video! It was very well written and planned. Great job!!!!!

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  114. Hi Lauriann!!! Your essay was amazing, and I got a lot of useful information from it!!! Excellent job!!

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  115. Hey Toby!! I agree with Will...you are an amazing writer! I'm not an amazing writer, but I would love to know some tips on how to write so well, if that's okay with you! Thanks Toby,
    Molly

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  116. Hey Dani!
    Loved your essay. It had so much good information in it!! It was very well written and I enjoyed reading it alot!! :)

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  117. Hey Elizabeth!
    Your essay was excellent and I really enjoyed reading it! You had so much useful information in it! Again, you did fantstic.
    Molly

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  118. I have learned that in video three that in 1947, the zbritish were going to end almost a century of rule over India.A British commision split Hindus and Muslims. They made the majority of Hindu India, and the majority of Muslims East and West Pakistan.Displaced Hindus and Muslims fled across borders and nearly 500,000 people died.In West Pakistan, four border regions had seen the worst,Sindh,Bengal,Punjab, and Jammu & Kashmir.Among India's 560 states, only Jammu & Kashmir had a Hindu maharaga in a Muslim majority population. Pakistan had disputed that the maharaga had joined India.Kashmir was later invaded by soldiers from Pakistan's northwestern province, supported by Pakistan's government.The maharaga had left Srinagar in October 1947,Indian troops were sent to Kashmir,but were not prepared for the weather conditions.India approached the United Nations to request a cease fire, which took effect in January, 1994. The cease fire established a line of control in Kashmir, but made no final border.
    China sent troops to the Aksai Chin region of Kashmir and easily India's poorly equiped troops.China still retains control over the Aksai Chin region today.Pakistan sent troops over to Indian occupied Kashmir dressed as civilians three years after China took over Aksai Chin.The fighting proved brief a inconclusive, so both India and Pakistan agreed to a cease fire. Ten million refugees fledWest Beangal after fighting broke out in East Pakistan. Bengladesh was later formed with India's help.
    After both Pakistan and India had succsessfully tested nuclear weapons, the countries declared war on each other.Paksitan later attempted to gain control of Kargil, an Indian controled area in Kashmir.Over 700 people were killed in Kammu & Kashmir in 2007.

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  119. India, a 500- year old civilization with 325 languages spoken is the oldest civilization known to mankind. India is the second fastest growing economy after China with an average annual growing rate of more than 8% in the last three years. It is also the largest middle class with real spending power. In the next 6 years India will add the largest working age population in the world, which is approximately 64% of the population. India has changed a lot from the past and the present, and is expecting great things in the future. I believe that India has a lot of greater, bigger, and better things that are yet to come in the future.

    Because India has the second largest pool of scientists and engineers in the world, newer and better technologys are being created and used there. India Is also a very important part of the import and export system. Like said in the video, Walmart sourced $ 1 Billion worth goods from India, half of which was apparels. India is much like the United States in some ways as well. This is showed by the United States and India’s similarities in the marketing business. Like said in the video, India will develop into a country with an advanced way of life.

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  120. I have learned the in video three that in 1947, the British were going to end almost a century of rule of India.A British commision split Hindus and Muslims.They made the Hindu majority India, and the Muslim majority East and West Pakistan.After the partition, displaced Hindus and Muslims fled across borders and nearly 500,000 were killed. Four of the border regions in West Pakistan had seen the worst of it,Sindh, Bengal,Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir. Among India's 560 states, only Jammu & Kashmir had a Hindu maharaga in a Muslim majority population.Pakistan had disputed that the maharaga had joined India. Kashmir was later invaded by soldiers from Pakistan's northwestern province, supported by Pakistan's government. The maharaga had left Srinagar in October 1947. Indian troops were sent to Kashmir, but were not prepared for the weather conditions.India approachsed the United Nations to request a cease fire when Pakistan sent troops to Kashmir. Which took effect in January, 1949.The cease fire established a line of control in Kashmir, but made no final border.
    China sent troops to the Aksai Chin region of Kashmir and easily defeated India's poorly equiped troops. China still retains control of the area today. Pakistan sent troops over to Indian occupied Kashmir dressed as civilians three years after China took over Aksai Chin. The fighting proved brief and inconclusive , so both India and Pakistan agreed to a cease fire. Ten million refugees fled to West Bengal after a war broke out in East Pakistan. Bangladesh was later formed with India's help.
    After both India and Pakistan had successfully tested nuclear weapons , the countries declared war on each other. Pakistan later attempted to gain control on Kargil, an Indian occupied area in Kashmir.Over 700 people were killed in Jammu & Kashmir in 2007.

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  121. I have learned the in video three that in 1947, the British were going to end almost a century of rule of India.A British commision split Hindus and Muslims.They made the Hindu majority India, and the Muslim majority East and West Pakistan.After the partition, displaced Hindus and Muslims fled across borders and nearly 500,000 were killed. Four of the border regions in West Pakistan had seen the worst of it,Sindh, Bengal,Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir. Among India's 560 states, only Jammu & Kashmir had a Hindu maharaga in a Muslim majority population.Pakistan had disputed that the maharaga had joined India. Kashmir was later invaded by soldiers from Pakistan's northwestern province, supported by Pakistan's government. The maharaga had left Srinagar in October 1947. Indian troops were sent to Kashmir, but were not prepared for the weather conditions.India approachsed the United Nations to request a cease fire when Pakistan sent troops to Kashmir. Which took effect in January, 1949.The cease fire established a line of control in Kashmir, but made no final border.
    China sent troops to the Aksai Chin region of Kashmir and easily defeated India's poorly equiped troops. China still retains control of the area today. Pakistan sent troops over to Indian occupied Kashmir dressed as civilians three years after China took over Aksai Chin. The fighting proved brief and inconclusive , so both India and Pakistan agreed to a cease fire. Ten million refugees fled to West Bengal after a war broke out in East Pakistan. Bangladesh was later formed with India's help.
    After both India and Pakistan had successfully tested nuclear weapons , the countries declared war on each other. Pakistan later attempted to gain control on Kargil, an Indian occupied area in Kashmir.Over 700 people were killed in Jammu & Kashmir in 2007.

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  122. I have learned the in video three that in 1947, the British were going to end almost a century of rule of India.A British commision split Hindus and Muslims.They made the Hindu majority India, and the Muslim majority East and West Pakistan.After the partition, displaced Hindus and Muslims fled across borders and nearly 500,000 were killed. Four of the border regions in West Pakistan had seen the worst of it,Sindh, Bengal,Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir. Among India's 560 states, only Jammu & Kashmir had a Hindu maharaga in a Muslim majority population.Pakistan had disputed that the maharaga had joined India. Kashmir was later invaded by soldiers from Pakistan's northwestern province, supported by Pakistan's government. The maharaga had left Srinagar in October 1947. Indian troops were sent to Kashmir, but were not prepared for the weather conditions.India approachsed the United Nations to request a cease fire when Pakistan sent troops to Kashmir. Which took effect in January, 1949.The cease fire established a line of control in Kashmir, but made no final border.
    China sent troops to the Aksai Chin region of Kashmir and easily defeated India's poorly equiped troops. China still retains control of the area today. Pakistan sent troops over to Indian occupied Kashmir dressed as civilians three years after China took over Aksai Chin. The fighting proved brief and inconclusive , so both India and Pakistan agreed to a cease fire. Ten million refugees fled to West Bengal after a war broke out in East Pakistan. Bangladesh was later formed with India's help.
    After both India and Pakistan had successfully tested nuclear weapons , the countries declared war on each other. Pakistan later attempted to gain control on Kargil, an Indian occupied area in Kashmir.Over 700 people were killed in Jammu & Kashmir in 2007.

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  123. I have learned the in video three that in 1947, the British were going to end almost a century of rule of India.A British commision split Hindus and Muslims.They made the Hindu majority India, and the Muslim majority East and West Pakistan.After the partition, displaced Hindus and Muslims fled across borders and nearly 500,000 were killed. Four of the border regions in West Pakistan had seen the worst of it,Sindh, Bengal,Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir. Among India's 560 states, only Jammu & Kashmir had a Hindu maharaga in a Muslim majority population.Pakistan had disputed that the maharaga had joined India. Kashmir was later invaded by soldiers from Pakistan's northwestern province, supported by Pakistan's government. The maharaga had left Srinagar in October 1947. Indian troops were sent to Kashmir, but were not prepared for the weather conditions.India approachsed the United Nations to request a cease fire when Pakistan sent troops to Kashmir. Which took effect in January, 1949.The cease fire established a line of control in Kashmir, but made no final border.
    China sent troops to the Aksai Chin region of Kashmir and easily defeated India's poorly equiped troops. China still retains control of the area today. Pakistan sent troops over to Indian occupied Kashmir dressed as civilians three years after China took over Aksai Chin. The fighting proved brief and inconclusive , so both India and Pakistan agreed to a cease fire. Ten million refugees fled to West Bengal after a war broke out in East Pakistan. Bangladesh was later formed with India's help.
    After both India and Pakistan had successfully tested nuclear weapons , the countries declared war on each other. Pakistan later attempted to gain control on Kargil, an Indian occupied area in Kashmir.Over 700 people were killed in Jammu & Kashmir in 2007.

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  124. I have learned the in video three that in 1947, the British were going to end almost a century of rule of India.A British commision split Hindus and Muslims.They made the Hindu majority India, and the Muslim majority East and West Pakistan.After the partition, displaced Hindus and Muslims fled across borders and nearly 500,000 were killed. Four of the border regions in West Pakistan had seen the worst of it,Sindh, Bengal,Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir. Among India's 560 states, only Jammu & Kashmir had a Hindu maharaga in a Muslim majority population.Pakistan had disputed that the maharaga had joined India. Kashmir was later invaded by soldiers from Pakistan's northwestern province, supported by Pakistan's government. The maharaga had left Srinagar in October 1947. Indian troops were sent to Kashmir, but were not prepared for the weather conditions.India approachsed the United Nations to request a cease fire when Pakistan sent troops to Kashmir. Which took effect in January, 1949.The cease fire established a line of control in Kashmir, but made no final border.
    China sent troops to the Aksai Chin region of Kashmir and easily defeated India's poorly equiped troops. China still retains control of the area today. Pakistan sent troops over to Indian occupied Kashmir dressed as civilians three years after China took over Aksai Chin. The fighting proved brief and inconclusive , so both India and Pakistan agreed to a cease fire. Ten million refugees fled to West Bengal after a war broke out in East Pakistan. Bangladesh was later formed with India's help.
    After both India and Pakistan had successfully tested nuclear weapons , the countries declared war on each other. Pakistan later attempted to gain control on Kargil, an Indian occupied area in Kashmir.Over 700 people were killed in Jammu & Kashmir in 2007.

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  125. I have learned the in video three that in 1947, the British were going to end almost a century of rule of India.A British commision split Hindus and Muslims.They made the Hindu majority India, and the Muslim majority East and West Pakistan.After the partition, displaced Hindus and Muslims fled across borders and nearly 500,000 were killed. Four of the border regions in West Pakistan had seen the worst of it,Sindh, Bengal,Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir. Among India's 560 states, only Jammu & Kashmir had a Hindu maharaga in a Muslim majority population.Pakistan had disputed that the maharaga had joined India. Kashmir was later invaded by soldiers from Pakistan's northwestern province, supported by Pakistan's government. The maharaga had left Srinagar in October 1947. Indian troops were sent to Kashmir, but were not prepared for the weather conditions.India approachsed the United Nations to request a cease fire when Pakistan sent troops to Kashmir. Which took effect in January, 1949.The cease fire established a line of control in Kashmir, but made no final border.
    China sent troops to the Aksai Chin region of Kashmir and easily defeated India's poorly equiped troops. China still retains control of the area today. Pakistan sent troops over to Indian occupied Kashmir dressed as civilians three years after China took over Aksai Chin. The fighting proved brief and inconclusive , so both India and Pakistan agreed to a cease fire. Ten million refugees fled to West Bengal after a war broke out in East Pakistan. Bangladesh was later formed with India's help.
    After both India and Pakistan had successfully tested nuclear weapons , the countries declared war on each other. Pakistan later attempted to gain control on Kargil, an Indian occupied area in Kashmir.Over 700 people were killed in Jammu & Kashmir in 2007.

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  126. Present Day India

    It was a perfectly detailed, plot set out by Pakistani terrorists for several months, which included becoming familiar with the area. The terrorists reached India by the morning of November 26, 2008 in inflatable boats; the sounds of explosions and gunfire filled the streets as many people were taken hostage. The terrorists attacked seven locations - a Jewish outreach center, two luxury hotels, a café, a railway, along with a women and children’s hospital. The terrorists had been targeting foreigners and were looking for people with U.S. and U.K. passports. During this three day hostage crisis, the terrorists used drugs, such as cocaine to stay awake and to maintain energy. I had never considered this, until I started researching for this project.

    Bit by bit people were being released from their hostages, but sadly in the attacks, at least 173 people were killed and 308 people unfortunately were wounded. Obviously, Pakistan and India are great enemies; as they have been constantly fighting ever since the end of British rule which split the two country’s land apart, leaving it a brutal conflict for land. Therefore, it is definitely not surprising that the two nations have been in four previous wars before.

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  127. India in The Past

    India, in 1947, had the population of 390,000,000. A majority of the people that lived in India were Hindu. Later, a British commission divided the territory of India into East Pakistan and West Pakistan. Since India was now divided, another majority of people moved in who were Muslim. Then people, since India got divided, were trying to get over the border into India. Tragically, while doing this, 500,000 people died from rioting. Sindh, Panjab, Bengal, Jahmu, and Kashmir saw the worst of this tragic because they were the border regions of India. Among India’s 565 principle states, only Jahmu and Kashmir had a Hindu maharishi ruling over a majority of Muslims, but India claimed that the maharishi decided to join India even though Pakistan disputed this. In October, Pakistanis from Pakistan invaded from the northwest frontier province into Jahmu and Kashmir with the support of Pakistan’s government. Then, in October the Maharishi left Srinagar and the Indians flew into the picture, but they were ill prepared for the cold and altitude. After that, Pakistan responded with its own campaign. Then, India approached the United Nations to cease fire, which didn’t go into effect until January 1, 1949. In 1962 China attacked India and the Aksai Chin region of Kashmir and easily defeated India’s poor equipped Himalayan troops. Today, China still holds the territory Aksai Chin.

    From looking up this video, I have learned some facts and I feel that if someone asked me a question on what I wrote about I feel like I would know exactly what to say in response to the question. To me, I feel that India has come a long way to what it is today. From having a population of 390,000,000 in 1947 to having a current population of 1,147,995,904 is an amazing accomplishment. Also, from studying India I have learned some cool facts which are listed below:



    • Chess was invented in India.
    • Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India.
    • India has the largest number of Post Offices in the world.
    • Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world.
    • Martial Arts were first created in India, and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries.
    • Yoga has its origins in India and has existed for over 5,000 years.

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  128. Lauriann your essay was really good and very informative. It is very interesting what that that happened on November 26th between Pakistan and India.

    ~Mary Elizabeth Grade 8

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  129. I have learned the in video three that in 1947, the British were going to end almost a century of rule of India.A British commision split Hindus and Muslims.They made the Hindu majority India, and the Muslim majority East and West Pakistan.After the partition, displaced Hindus and Muslims fled across borders and nearly 500,000 were killed. Four of the border regions in West Pakistan had seen the worst of it,Sindh, Bengal,Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir. Among India's 560 states, only Jammu & Kashmir had a Hindu maharaga in a Muslim majority population.Pakistan had disputed that the maharaga had joined India. Kashmir was later invaded by soldiers from Pakistan's northwestern province, supported by Pakistan's government. The maharaga had left Srinagar in October 1947. Indian troops were sent to Kashmir, but were not prepared for the weather conditions.India approachsed the United Nations to request a cease fire when Pakistan sent troops to Kashmir. Which took effect in January, 1949.The cease fire established a line of control in Kashmir, but made no final border.
    China sent troops to the Aksai Chin region of Kashmir and easily defeated India's poorly equiped troops. China still retains control of the area today. Pakistan sent troops over to Indian occupied Kashmir dressed as civilians three years after China took over Aksai Chin. The fighting proved brief and inconclusive , so both India and Pakistan agreed to a cease fire. Ten million refugees fled to West Bengal after a war broke out in East Pakistan. Bangladesh was later formed with India's help.
    After both India and Pakistan had successfully tested nuclear weapons , the countries declared war on each other. Pakistan later attempted to gain control on Kargil, an Indian occupied area in Kashmir.Over 700 people were killed in Jammu & Kashmir in 2007.

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  130. I have learned the in video three that in 1947, the British were going to end almost a century of rule of India.A British commision split Hindus and Muslims.They made the Hindu majority India, and the Muslim majority East and West Pakistan.After the partition, displaced Hindus and Muslims fled across borders and nearly 500,000 were killed. Four of the border regions in West Pakistan had seen the worst of it,Sindh, Bengal,Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir. Among India's 560 states, only Jammu & Kashmir had a Hindu maharaga in a Muslim majority population.Pakistan had disputed that the maharaga had joined India. Kashmir was later invaded by soldiers from Pakistan's northwestern province, supported by Pakistan's government. The maharaga had left Srinagar in October 1947. Indian troops were sent to Kashmir, but were not prepared for the weather conditions.India approachsed the United Nations to request a cease fire when Pakistan sent troops to Kashmir
    Which took effect in January, 1949.The cease fire established a line of control in Kashmir, but made no final border.
    China sent troops to the Aksai Chin region of Kashmir and easily defeated India's poorly equiped troops. China still retains control of the area today. Pakistan sent troops over to Indian occupied Kashmir dressed as civilians three years after China took over Aksai Chin. The fighting proved brief and inconclusive , so both India and Pakistan agreed to a cease fire. Ten million refugees fled to West Bengal after a war broke out in East Pakistan. Bangladesh was later formed with India's help.
    After both India and Pakistan had successfully tested nuclear weapons , the countries declared war on each other. Pakistan later attempted to gain control on Kargil, an Indian occupied area in Kashmir.Over 700 people were killed in Jammu & Kashmir in 2007.

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  131. Video#2

    To start off the gunmen arrived by inflatable boats. They invaded the shores of Mumbai over night. The targets had two things that were in common. They either had American passports or they had British passports. Anyone who had either of the two passports was wanted. I think that the message that the terrorists were trying to express was that they were not to be fooled with and that they did not want American or British people in Mumbai. They also showed their authority. They probably also thought that it was right and were still hung up on older disputes. Many people died in the attacks also. There was no exact amount but there were scores of people who died. The historical problem between Pakistan and India is that the British made boarders to split land witch created conflicts and violent battles. It also took a long time to get everyone out of the one hundred year old hotel. It took about two and a half days to get everyone of the hostages out. There were about nineteen hostages. To sum it all up, the terrorists shouldn’t invade anymore. Terrorism is a very bad thing and should be stopped.

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  132. Video#2

    To start off the gunmen arrived by inflatable boats. They invaded the shores of Mumbai over night. The targets had two things that were in common. They either had American passports or they had British passports. Anyone who had either of the two passports was wanted. I think that the message that the terrorists were trying to express was that they were not to be fooled with and that they did not want American or British people in Mumbai. They also showed their authority. They probably also thought that it was right and were still hung up on older disputes. Many people died in the attacks also. There was no exact amount but there were scores of people who died. The historical problem between Pakistan and India is that the British made boarders to split land witch created conflicts and violent battles. It also took a long time to get everyone out of the one hundred year old hotel. It took about two and a half days to get everyone of the hostages out. There were about nineteen hostages. To sum it all up, the terrorists shouldn’t invade anymore. Terrorism is a very bad thing and should be stopped.

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  133. On November 26, 2008 members of the Pakistan-based militant organization, Lashkar-e-Taiba, attacked India’s largest city, Mumbai. The attackers arrived on inflatable boats. The attack consisted of various bombings and shootings throughout the city. Shootings and bombings took place at Nariman House, Leopold Café, Taj Mahal, Oberoi Hotel, Cama Hospital, and other locations. One hostage said that the gunmen wanted everyone with British or American passports. The gunmen must have been looking for foreigners since all of the locations they attacked were popular tourist sites.
    On November 29, 2008 the attack ended when the three of the remaining attackers were killed. Blood tests on the attackers showed that they took cocaine and LSD to stay awake for the time during the attacks. The only surviving gunman, Ajmal Kasab, admitted that the group was from the Pakistan-based militant organization. India, the United States, and many other countries recognize this organization as a terrorist organization.The Indian Government stated that the attackers came and were controlled from Pakistan. Pakistan and India had issues with each other ever since the partition in 1947.
    The series of terrorist attacks that occurred in Mumbai left at least 173 dead and injured at least 308. Of those who were killed were 28 foreign nationals from 10 different countries. This tragedy showed just how dangerous terrorist organization can be.

    (wikipedia.com)

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  134. I decided I would write about two of the three videos. Video number one "India in the Past" and video number two "India in the Present." I will answer the questions given and tell you about how India has changed.
    First off partition is a structure that is made to separate or divide things such as rooms. For example it was when India was divided and new borders were set up. For most of the Nineteenth Century, India was ruled by the British. India was considered the jewel in the crown of the British Empire. Queen Victoria had been made Empress of India and the British had a major military presence in India. China, West Pakistan, and East Pakistan emerged after 1947. After partition India and Pakistan fought two wars. Only one of them was conclusive. In 1999 both countries successfully tested nuclear weapons.

    The gunmen arrived at the gateway of India on November 26th in inflatable boats. It only took the gunmen an hour to travel the city and attack. The terrorists targets were the Narriman Jwish outreach center, the Taj Mahal Hotel, the Cama Hospital, the Trident Hotel, the Leopold Cafe, the oberoi and the Chatrapati Shivaji Railway Station. The
    hostages had either a British or American passport. The streets were congested with people and the firefighters tried to help everybody. Unfortunately 200 people were estimate to have died and around 300 were hurt in this event. This attack take a huge part in Mumbai's History.

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  135. video #2


    Terrorism is one of the many things that affects people around the world today. Some things I learned from the video is that terrorism is everywhere, and focuses on people who are from different places or who are a different religion then the terrorist(s). I also learned that terrorism focuses on heavily populated areas such as tourist attractions and and hotels, and that the terrorist(s) will do ant thing and hurt anyone in their path. Another thing is that the terrorist(s) are trying to express and want people to see things from their prospective.

    When terrorism occurs the terrorists focus on foreigners and people of different religions. Also the victims are never aware of what is going on during the attack. In these attacks many civilians have died. The terrorist(s) also are almost always armed with weapons. They usually use these weapons to scare the hostages or to protect them from the S.W.A.T. And also to make sure the S.W.A.T. do not try to save the hostages. The terrorists also hold the hostages to threaten the S.W.A.T. Also terrorists don't just hurt civilians, but they also vandalize the surrounding environment.

    Overall I learned that terrorism occurs all around the world. And is also one of the many problems we face today.

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  136. India In The Future


    India, a 500- year old civilization with 325 languages spoken is the oldest civilization known to mankind. India is the second fastest growing economy after China with an average annual growing rate of more than 8% in the last three years. It is also the largest middle class with real spending power. In the next 6 years India will add the largest working age population in the world, which is approximately 64% of the population. India has changed a lot from the past and the present, and is expecting great things in the future. I believe that India has a lot of greater, bigger, and better things that are yet to come in the future.

    Because India has the second largest pool of scientists and engineers in the world, newer and better technologys are being created and used there. India Is also a very important part of the import and export system. Like said in the video, Walmart sourced $ 1 Billion worth goods from India, half of which was apparels. India is much like the United States in some ways as well. This is showed by the United States and India’s similarities in the marketing business. Like said in the video, India will develop into a country with an advanced way of life.

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  137. The situation in present time with terrorists in Mumbai is terrible. The terrorists were said to have came into Mumbai on November 26 in inflatable boats. The men obviously had a mission to kill and set out to many places. Some places were the Taj Mahal Hotel, Leopolo Café, and Cama Hospital. The attacks served up chaos to the whole Mumbai nation. Day by day hostage’s bodies were being found and the Mumbai security could not get there in time. One survivor said,”they were asking us if we had a U.S. or Britain passport. It seem like they were trying to single out foreigners.” By this quote, Mumbai government officials could infer that these terrorists were trying to kill as much foreigners in Mumbai as they can.

    As the days went on with these killers, more and more foreigners lost their lives. Each day you could hear the sounds of explosions and see the flames engulfing buildings. One big devastation was at Taj Mahal Hotel. As flames consumed the over 100 year old building, firefighters tried desperately to get trapped hostages out of the rooms. India’s Prime minister who was outraged, gave a speech saying that he is trying to get all hostages out of danger at all costs. Now the streets of Mumbai that are usually crowded were in a dead silence as India’s military closed in on three hostage locations. About 306 hostages have already been found dead so the military wanted to act quickly. That day 7 hostages were rescued from the Jewish center. That gave some people hope. The next day (Friday) everyone available person were trying to end the violence and rescue hostages. Their work paid off. More than 90 people were rescued from the grasp of the terrorists.

    Then when Indian security finally secured Naramin House, they found many hostages who were already dead. That Saturday was finally the end. The siege at the Taj was dealt with and the remaining gunmen were taken care of. But many people still thought over the fact that many, many people lost their lives to these men. In the end, the India’s security did its job and did indeed help Mumbai survive these hard times. If it wasn’t for them, hundreds of more people could have died.

    Terrorism happens in many places in the world and is one of the causes of most civilian casualties. Many ordinary people just so happen to be in the wrong place and end up dead because of people who might think it was their destiny to kill many innocent people. Terrorism is a great problem that many countries face and these places are always trying to stop it. On example of an act of terrorism was in 2001 when terrorists destroyed the Twin Towers in New York. Over 1,000 regular, normal people died due to maniacs how might think God chose them to do this or their nation wants them to do it. We will never know but one thing we do know is: Terrorism affects Mumbai, New York, and many other places and it must be stopped.

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  138. Mohandas K. Gandhi’s non-violent political movement helped convince the British to give up colonial rule over India. While participating in negotiations to establish Indian independence, he was assassinated while attending a prayer meeting. Although he was opposed to partitioning India into separate states, religious and political differences between Muslims and Hindus led to the beginning of violence within India.

    In August of 1947, India was to be partitioned on the basis of religious demographics and natural geographic boundaries. The result was a massive population exchange between the newly formed India and Pakistan. The new governments could not deal with such massive migrations and violence and slaughter broke out in both countries. There was a complete breakdown of law and order; many died in riots, massacre, and the hardships of moving from one nation to another. Estimates of the deaths ranged from 500,000 to 1,000,000 people with as many as 12 million homeless.

    The partitioning of India generated historical controversy and debate. The region of Kashmir has represented the continued tension that dates back to the partition. Shortly after the partitioning India and Pakistan went to war over the region of Kashmir and is still a source of tension between Pakistan and India today.

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  139. Mohandas K. Gandhi’s non-violent political movement helped convince the British to give up colonial rule over India. While participating in negotiations to establish Indian independence, he was assassinated while attending a prayer meeting. Although he was opposed to partitioning India into separate states, religious and political differences between Muslims and Hindus led to the beginning of violence within India.

    In August of 1947, India was to be partitioned on the basis of religious demographics and natural geographic boundaries. The result was a massive population exchange between the newly formed India and Pakistan. The new governments could not deal with such massive migrations and violence and slaughter broke out in both countries. There was a complete breakdown of law and order; many died in riots, massacre, and the hardships of moving from one nation to another. Estimates of the deaths ranged from 500,000 to 1,000,000 people with as many as 12 million homeless.

    The partitioning of India generated historical controversy and debate. The region of Kashmir has represented the continued tension that dates back to the partition. Shortly after the partitioning India and Pakistan went to war over the region of Kashmir and is still a source of tension between Pakistan and India today.

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  140. The video about India's past was utterly surprising. I had no idea about the partitioning, or separation, of India and all the fighting that followed in suit.

    In 1947, Britain was preparing to end rule in India. A British commission the split the territory into 3 parts: West Pakistan, India, and East Pakistan. East and West Pakistan were majorly Muslim, while India was vastly Hindu. Many of the original subcontinent's 309 million people began to flee over their respective borders into other parts of the subcontinent.

    Over a span of nearly 20 years, about 5 wars between India and the Pakistans broke out. Almost all the fighting took place in and/or over the Jammu & Kashmir territories. China also engaged in warfare over the Aksai Chin area, easily gaining the territory, and maintaining control over it today.

    In 1999, after both India and Pakistan's experimenting in nuclear weaponry, a full-scale war was narrowly avoided when India attempted to gain control over the Kargil region.

    Both later terrorist attacks as well as the frequent fighting contributed to a mass of about 47,000 deaths by 2007. India's past proves that countries will fight to gain "what is rightfully theirs," or simply put: land. Territories are one of the most common reasons of war in the past, and most skirmishes lasted over large amounts of time.

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  141. The gunman arrived in inflatable boats on November 26th. The targets were a Jewish elderidge center, Lepolo’s Café, the Taj Mahal, and the Oberjie Trident. Explosions and flames are now very chronic, and are burning down 100 year old hotels. As many people are escaping, they are telling their terrifying stories to news reporters. Many security guards and armies were helping rescue people who were trapped in the hotels and other buildings. Even the prime minister has taken the responsibility of making sure that there is more security and armies ready at all times to attack any other terrorists that attempt to do harm to the people. There were about 175 deaths and about 308 people were wounded. As more and more bodies and people are being found, and taken out of custody of the terrorists, more stories and information about the terrorists, and the damages in India are being given out to the public. Many people have at least one close family member or friend who has died because of these devastating terrorist attacks, and are even entering the military themselves to help save their other family members and friends stand up against the terrorists, and make sure that the amount of people who died is kept to a minimum.

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  142. India is a growing country and economy and military. It recently gained independence and is doing fine with its democratic government and new economy.

    India is the fastest growing economy aside from China. It supports over one billion people and sixty four percent of them are working. India also has the second most scientists and engineers in the world. India is a lot like the United States because it is a melting pot of cultures it has mostly Hindu, and India also speaks three hundred twenty five different languages, and this country has been alive for five thousand years. India also has the largest market capitalization in the world. India I believe will surpass the United States as the world superpower because of their military it is the third most powerful in the world. If it doesn’t go into war for a few more years it could have the most powerful nation in the world also with the economy thriving like it is and over sixty four percent of the people at work the economy will probably continue to grow.

    India is a very big economy and military and is thriving I would not be surprised if it became the world superpower in only a couple of years.

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  143. Before 1947 India was owned by Britain. Then Britain gave India independence. Then not long after that India got a partition. It spilt into two nations Pakistan and India. Pakistan was in the west and east and India was located dead center. In the process of people crossing borders many people lost their lives. There were approximately 15 million people who crossed borders and 500,000 who died. Then after 1947 three countries emerged India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Pakistan made up the west and Bangladesh made up a small portion of the east. As tension aroused between Pakistan and Indian troops were dying everywhere. Then it got very serious both nations acquired nuclear firepower but thankfully did not use it. But after 1947 Pakistan and India had two wars one in 1965 and one in 1971. As of today Pakistan and India are still in territorial disputes.

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  144. India is a 5,000 year old civilization with 325 languages spoken. They are the second fastest growing economy after China with an average annual growth rate more than 8% in the last 3 year. In the next 6 years India will add the largest working age population (approx. 64% of population). Walmart sourced $1 billion worth of goods from India. India is also the 4th largest producer of wind energy. India is the 12th largest nation in terms of market capitalization (current level of U.S. $770 billion.
    I think that in the future there is a chance that India might surpass America as the world's next superpower. I think this because India is made up of many intelligent leaders and has a very strong government and economy. I think that it could be possible that America might stay as the world's superpower because our government handles crisis in a mature matter and we are a strong country and like India we also have intelligent leaders.
    India is a small country compared to America. India has less unemployment than America, but the U.S. plays a bigger part in trading than India. India is also a developing country and is growing. The population is said to keep increasing India's population is expected to rise from 45 to 49 percent.

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  145. It began at 9:00 in the evening onNovember twenty sixth when the gunmen landed in the gate way of India in inflatable boats. It took them a little more than an hour for the men to pan across the city and carry out there attacks.
    The 2008 Mumbai attacks were more then ten coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai, Indias largest city. The attacks which drew widespread Condemnation across the world, began on November twenty ninth, killing at least 173 people, and wounding at least 308. By the early morning of November twenty eighth all sites except for the taj hotel had been secure by Mumbai police and security forces.
    On November twenty ninth the action is officially named Operation Black Tornado. It resulted in the death of the last remaining attackers at the taj hotel , ending all the fighting in the attacks. The only attacker who was captured alive was Ajmal Kasab. There were ten gunmen, nine who were subsequently shot, and one captured by security forces. On January seventh 2009, after more than a month after denying the nationality of the attackers, Pakistans information minister that there nationality is Pakstani.

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  146. Indian in the Present


    On November 26, 2008, India was attacked by terrorists. There were shootings and bombings all across India. Many people lost their lives, including some of the attackers. This was a hard time for India to deal with. To this day, they are still trying to get over the tragic event.

    The terrorists traveled from Karachi, Pakistan, then across the Arabian Sea where they hijacked an Indian fishing trawler, and killed the crew members. The first event was around 20:00 (IST) on November 26, when 10 men in inflatable speedboats arrived at two locations. Later, they attacked places like the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Leopold Café, the Taj Mahal Hotel, the Oberoi Trident, and the Narimen House.

    At the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the attack started at 21:30 and ended around 22:45. In this period of time, 58 people were killed and 104 were injured. The Leopold Café was a popular place to go. When the attackers arrived there, they opened fire and killed 10 people and injured others. In the Taj Mahal Hotel, six explosions were set off in the building. Firefighters rescued 200 hostages from the windows. Then two attackers entered and took control of The Narimen House, a Jewish center. They held many hostages. It was reported that the terrorists were going after people who had American or British passports. They killed 173 people and injured 308.

    Indian was greatly affected by this event. They are trying to recover from the trauma of the attack.

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  147. India in the Past

    In 1947,Britain wanted to end almost a century of rule under the Indian sub-continent and it's 390,000,000 people. Two different religions were settled in this area, Hindus, who lived in central and southern India, and Muslims who lived in Bengal and the northwest. After the partition in 1947, 3 countries emerged, India, Paikstan, and Kashmir. A partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one community's homeland. In the problems that followed the partition, 15,000,000 people fled across the new borders, but 50,000 died in rioting.
    Among the 565 states, only Jammu & Kashmir had a Hindu maharaja ruling over a majority of the population. Pakistan disputed that the maharaja decided to join India, so in October, Pakistan invaded Kashmir with the support of their government. Later, in October 1947, the maharaja left Srinagar. Indian troops were airlifted in, but were not prepared for the cold, harsh weather. Pakistan responded with it's own campaign and India approched the United Nations to broker a cease fire which went into effect on January 1st, 1949, establishing a line of control, but no official border.
    In 1952, China attacked India in the Aksai Chin region of Kashmir, defeating Indias poorly equipped Himalayan troops.China retains control of the Aksai Chin today.
    Three years later, Pakistan sent troops across the line of control, but the fighting was breif. On September 22nd, both sides agreed to a United Nations cease fire.
    Another brief war broke out in East Pakistan in 1971. East Pakistan moved west to West Bengal and with India's help, Bengladesh was born.
    In 1999,after India and Pakistan succesfully tested nuclear weapons in Pohran, India, and Chagai, Pakistan, warwas barely avoided when Pakistan tried to cease the Kargil region of Indian controlled Kashmir.
    Together, there were 3 wars that took place after the partition. In 2007, 777 people were killed in violence in Jammu and Kashmi, bringing the 2 decade total above 47,000 by Indians oficial count. But, according to some Kashmir citizens, the total is twice that size.

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  148. India is growing in many different ways such as, population and economy. India has a population of 1.1 billion. India has the second fastest growing economy with an annual growth rate of 8 percent, after China with an annual growth rate of 10 percent. India produces the second largest pool of scientists and engineers in the world. India compares to America in ways such as they have a higher population, a higher industry percentage, and a higher growth rate, but America has a lower poverty rate and their exports exceed Indias by more than half. Indias main export is gold, India exports the second most gold in the world.

    It is very possible that India may surpass America as a world power in the future, some reasons for this are America is in an economic depression right now, and on the other hand India is flourishing with a rapidly growing economy and population. At this rate if India can maintain their state of growth they could surpass America as a world power.

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  149. India has been a rich and prosperous during the 20th century. During its economical growth it has faced many battles. In 1947 Britain was about to end its rule over India an its three hundred and ninety million people. Hindus were concentrated in central and southern India, While Muslims were located in Bengal and the North West. Britain Divided the territory into Pakistan Bengal Sin oh Punjab and Kashmir and India. 15 million people fled across the new borders, 500,000 died in fighting. India claimed the Mataraga decided to join Pakistan but Pakistan denied it. Out of the new territory only Jam mu Kashmir had Muslim rulers. In October Pakistan decided to invade Jam mu Kashmir with the support of Pakistanis government. The Indian troops were flown in but were no prepare for the cold weather. Pakistan retaliated and India appealed to the United Nations. In 1962 China in the Aksa chin region of India which was easy with India's poorly equipped Himalayan troops. China Still owns that region today. 3 years later Pakistan sent troops across the border dressed as Kashmirian locals. On September 22 both sided agreed to stop fighting. In East Pakistan they sent troops into Bengal and Benglandesh. India has a fascinating history and probably continue for many years to come.

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